Ancient Man in America
Neanderthal Breeds with Cro-Magnum  by Mary Sutherland
Sacred Sites of North America
Mary Sutherland
248 Carver Street
Winslow, Illinois  61089
815 367 1006

The next time you're tempted to call some oaf a Neanderthal, you might want to take a look in the mirror!

According to a new DNA study, most humans have a little Neanderthal in them—at least 1 to 4 percent of a person's genetic makeup.

The study uncovered the first solid genetic evidence that "modern" humans—or Homo sapiens—interbred with their Neanderthal neighbors, who mysteriously died out about 30,000 years ago.

"We can now say that, in all probability, there was gene flow from Neanderthals to modern humans," lead study author Ed Green of the University of California, Santa Cruz, said in a prepared

That's no surprise to anthropologist Erik Trinkhaus, whose skeleton-based claims of Neanderthal-modern human interbreeding—previously
contradicted with DNA evidence—appear to have been vindicated by the new gene study,  published  in the journal Science.

"They've finally seen the light ... because it's been obvious to many us that this happened," said Trinkaus, of Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, who wasn't part of the new study.

Trinkhaus adds that most living humans probably have much more Neanderthal DNA than the new study suggests.

"One to 4 percent is truly a minimum," Trinkaus added. "But is it 10 percent? Twenty percent? I have no idea."

The genetic study team reached their conclusion after comparing the genomes of five living humans—from China, France, Papua New
Guinea, southern Africa, and western Africa—against the available "rough draft" of the Neanderthal genome. The results showed that
Neanderthal DNA is 99.7 percent identical to modern human DNA, versus, for example, 98.8 percent for modern humans and chimps,
according to the study.

The popular conception of Neanderthals is that of big-browed, short, stocky, stooping, grunting, ape-like cave men (and women) eking out a meagre existence during the harsh conditions of ice age
Europe, the Near East, and Southwest Asia.

Classic Neanderthals in Europe date from around 130,000 years ago to perhaps as recently as 24,000 years ago in Gibraltar, but
Neanderthal characteristics and antecedents are seen in fossil forms going back to perhaps half a million years ago or earlier.

In many people's minds Neanderthals are a primitive side branch of the human tree at best, a totally separate species from us, that was driven to extinction by the more intelligent and better armed
"Cro-Magnon Man" group (archaic Homo sapiens, essentially the direct ancestors of living humans) who progressively migrated from East Africa into Eurasia during the period of about 60,000 to
30,000 years ago.

Stan Gooch had a very different view of the place and importance of Neanderthals – in Gooch's view modern humanity is a result of the intermixing, both biologically and culturally, of Cro-Magnon
and Neanderthal elements.

The Neanderthal Culture

According to Gooch, Neanderthals possessed an intricate, psychically-charged, magical culture. Neanderthals built a long-lasting "high
civilisation of dreams."Neanderthal culture, more sophisticated than that of the Cro-Magnons when they first arrived in Europe, served as a
primary source for much so-called ancient wisdom. He argued that Neanderthals were the original creators, the innovators, of high culture, of
symbolic values and religious sensibilities, which early modern humans (Cro-Magnons) copied and adopted without genuine understanding.
Neanderthal culture was not a civilisation of high technologies, but one of the mind and spirit that survives today in our beliefs, myths, folklore,
and religious practices.

Neanderthals developed in time a culture of the mind of a very high order, but also of a strangeness that is extremely difficult for us to imagine.

Neanderthals, according to Gooch, worshipped the cave bear, the spider, and the serpent – animals with whom they shared their caves. Neanderthals were the first humans to fully develop religious
cults, and cave bear worship was their most significant cult. Neanderthals worshipped the number 13, associated with the moon and the lunar calendar, a number that is still considered magical
today. Neanderthals developed a profound knowledge of crystals and minerals. According to Gooch, Neanderthals developed their own unique symbols, signs, and sophisticated language systems.

They weaved and sewed embroidery, wore jewellery, painted their faces and bodies, danced, had an elaborate mythology and cosmology, built stone circles, utilised sacred fires, and made
ceremonial sacrifices. They had their own grand celebrations and feasts, which were spectacularly colourful and creative performances.

They worshipped the moon and other celestial bodies including constellations still worshipped today worldwide such as The Big Bear, Little Bear, and Draco (the dragon or serpent in the sky).
Gooch asserted that Neanderthals had a strong religious life, based on an earth-magic religion, and they believed in the afterlife, practicing complex burial rituals.

Neanderthals, as Gooch emphasised, were capable of great cultural innovations that included wearing jewellery and decorating their bodies and faces with colourful paints for special ceremonies.
There is evidence that the sophisticated Chatelperronian culture of France belonged to the Neanderthals and not, as was formerly believed,
to modern humans
. This culture included symbolic artifacts, such as jewellery. The Uluzzian culture in Italy, also now attributed to Neanderthals, is another example – an innovative culture
that included a variety of very sophisticated tools that were similar to modern humans' tools. Neanderthals in Spain were painting perforated shells for decoration, using pigments, and engaged in
other ritual behaviour.

Archaeologist João Zilhão stated, " The one thing these finds make clear is that Neanderthals were behaviourally modern. They were not like
early modern humans anatomically, but they were cognitively as advanced or more so.

In many ways Neanderthal culture and Cro-Magnon culture were diametrically opposed. Gooch wrote,

I believe the actuality of Neanderthal man – of whom archaeologists find only a handful of skeletons, a few altars, traces of ritualised
burial, a range of flint tools, and an apparent knowledge of herbal remedies – was this: his was a moon-goddess-worshipping, matriarchal,
food-gathering society, where women governed all matters. The only tasks delegated specifically to men were those where muscle power
was directly and literally required, as in fighting, for example. The structure and nature of Cro-Magnon life was diametrically
opposite. This was a patriarchal, hunter-warrior society, of which men governed all aspects, including religious life. Women were mere
adjuncts in all things, whose main purpose was to bear sons and to comfort and care for the male. The supreme deity worshipped was the
sun god.

Gooch believed that Neanderthals were a mostly nocturnal species, and came out at night. Observing the skies and the moon for thousands
of generations, they had become experts in all phenomena of the stars, having a great understanding of cycles and time, equinoxes and
solstices, the phases of the moon. Cro-Magnons would have come to know Neanderthal religion and knowledge initially through secret
observation during 10,000 years (or more) of co-existence. When Cro-Magnons arrived in Europe they were shocked by the knowledgeable
Neanderthals, and wanted the Neanderthal magic for themselves; so, they slowly and carefully spied on Neanderthals, copied them, and in
the process stole all of their knowledge and wisdom, including writing systems and rituals.

The meeting of Classic Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons in Europe some 35,000 years ago was an immense culture shock for both parties… The two species were culturally opposite to each other
in every way. At the purely psychological/cultural level,… Neanderthal dealt Cro-Magnon a culture-shock of such magnitude that its consequences are still with us today. Though it left little physical
trace, there is in fact… not one aspect of our present lives, our attitudes and our institutions which does not today bear that ancient [Neanderthal] culture's stamp.

Gooch believes that Cro-Magnon was dazzled by the religious rituals, symbolism, cosmology, and deep intimate knowledge of the natural world the Neanderthals possessed. Although
Cro-Magnon took over all the `magic' and ritual of Neanderthal for his own, he no doubt had little understanding of most of it, and made changes to suit his own world view, his own existing social
structure, his own biological imperatives. He took over essentially empty forms, while losing the priceless content.

The vertebrate brain includes the cerebrum and the cerebellum. In modern humans the cerebrum consists of the cerebral hemispheres that fill most of the skull. In humans the cerebellum is smaller
than the cerebrum and situated at the back of the head tucked behind and under the cerebrum. Gooch points out that essentially the cerebrum and the cerebellum are two different brains ("we are
each of us `in two minds'" that correspond to two different ways of approaching the world ("Two Brains – and Two Universes". The cerebrum is associated with "logical" and "rational" thinking, versus
the cerebellum is associated with "dreaming" and "magic."  The cerebellum… is responsible for trance states, for dreams, for telepathy, for psychic healing, for spontaneous wounds, for poltergeist
phenomena, and all other such matters. It is also the source of and the impetus for religious belief. Here we have the anatomical/physiological explanation for the duality of human personality.

The Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal brains both consisted of larger cerebrums and smaller  cerebellums, but the Neanderthal brain had a much larger and more powerful cerebellum than that found
in Cro-Magnons. The more developed Neanderthal cerebellum gave rise to their "high civilisation of dreams. Neanderthals developed a deep understanding of the natural world, but they did not
necessarily do so in the rational, logical, "scientific" manner that modern humans have come to expect and accept.
"I think that the Neanderthals" Gooch stated, "obtained
their knowledge not logically and scientifically but intuitively."

Gooch believed there were several different varieties of Neanderthals, separated geographically and temporally. Furthermore, a key point of
his thesis is that Neanderthals, at least some Neanderthals, could and did interbreed with our direct ancestors, the Cro-Magnons.
In recent decades it has become apparent that human diversity tens of thousands of years ago was much more complex than previously
Some 50,000 to 30,000 years ago, for instance, there may have been half a dozen or more distinct species of humans inhabiting
Besides Cro-Magnons (archaic Homo sapiens) and Neanderthals there was the diminutive "hobbit"  as well as apparently the last
remnant populations of Homo Erectus. In southern Africa were found the Boskop people,
Homo Capensis, reputedly with brains 25 to 35
percent larger than those of modern humans.
In Siberia about the same time there was another population of humans, who may have been a
species distinct from those listed above (though perhaps most closely related to Neanderthals), at present simply referred to as the
"Denisovans." To add to the list, the indigenous aboriginal Homo sapiens populations of Australia and New Guinea may have been relatively
isolated for the last 50,000 years or more.

Gooch believed that aggressive and battle-skilled Cro-Magnons both massively exterminated some populations of Neanderthals and also
interbred with them. He wrote, The genetic crossing of Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal produced not just (a) highly gifted individuals (`the
mighty men of old, the men of renown') but (b) an entirely new species of human – ourselves…. This new product was… either entirely or
very largely due to Cro-Magnon men fertilising Neanderthal women – not the other way around. These offspring would have been accepted
into Cro-Magnon groups…. And so Neanderthal genes were introduced into the Cro-Magnon gene pool/

This was a radical, unconventional view – to believe that Cro-Magnons and Neanderthals interbred and therefore Neanderthal genes should still be found among us. However, recent studies of the
Neanderthal genome reveal that today an estimated 1% to 4% of the modern Eurasian genome appears to come from Neanderthals. That is, Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons must have interbred.
Gooch's ideas appear to be corroborated! (As an aside, we can also point out
Gooch suggested that at least some Neanderthals may have been redheaded,
another prediction since corroborated by modern science.



On the 13th of September 2010, in a Swansea, South Wales hospital, an  embittered and reclusive man, hailed as a genius by some, yet marginalised by many mainstream scientists and
academics, passed away at the age of seventy-eight.

In his later years Stan Gooch lived “virtually destitute” in “a rented caravan in a nearly abandoned Welsh trailer park – with neither telephone nor computer,
his correspondence inked on the backs of galley proofs, and scarce personal contact – wholly lacking family, right at life’s raw edge.
This was the sad end for a man who made incredibly original contributions  to our understanding of the origins and nature of our own humanity.
Colin Wilson once wrote of Gooch, “It has seemed to me for many  years that Stan Gooch is one of the most underrated writers of our time.
We agree with this assessment.

Born in 1932 among the slums of southern London to working-class parents, Gooch raised himself from his dreary surroundings, ultimately earning a degree in Modern Languages at King’s
College, London, and a degree in Psychology at Birkbeck College, London. After spending time, between earning his degrees, variously working in the scrap metal business, teaching in Coventry
(English Midlands), and serving as “Head of Department” in a London grammar school, in 1964 Gooch was appointed a senior research psychologist at the National Children’s Bureau. He wrote
scholarly articles and coauthored books on psychology.

On the surface it seemed that Gooch was off to a respectable and potentially prosperous career. However, Gooch’s life would take a different turn, driven by his overwhelming interest in two
subjects that on the surface might seem quite distinct, but for Gooch were intimately related: 1) psychical research (the paranormal, or what is now often referred to as parapsychology) and 2)
understanding and reconstructing the mental and cultural world of Neanderthals and their bearing on modern humanity.

Ultimately Gooch gave up his secure position, turning down both the directorship of the National Children’s Bureau, and a professorship of Psychology at Brunel University, London, to pursue his
research and writing full-time.

Unfortunately for Gooch, his books never had the mass appeal, with the concomitant income, he hoped for. Furthermore, psychical research is a subject that is viewed as fairly marginal at best by
most academics, and Gooch’s conclusions concerning Neanderthal mentality and culture diverged so radically from the common conceptions of the time that mainstream scholars systematically
ignored his work.
At the time of his death Gooch was depressed, bitter, and even angry that his ideas had not garnered the recognition that he felt they rightfully deserved. Perhaps he was ahead of his time, as
many of his ideas about Neanderthals in particular are now being independently confirmed (although still generally without citing or crediting Gooch).


While teaching in Coventry in the late 1950s, Gooch began attending weekly séances, his introduction to the paranormal. This sparked a deep lifelong interest in psychic phenomena. Moreover,
Gooch found that he personally had telepathic and mediumistic talents. At one séance Gooch and the other members of the circle became aware of “a crouching, ape-like shape” in the corner of
the room that “approximated to most people’s idea of what an ancient cave-man would look like.”6 After a while the figure faded away and the séance continued.

Nearly two decades later Gooch would write,
As regards the figure of the cave-man, which so very much impressed and haunted me both then and afterwards (in a wholly agreeable way, I must add) – I had [not] and could not have had any
inkling that one day I would write books about Neanderthal man.

Gooch summarised his own work during this period as
Looking always for further knowledge about the human condition, I was at the same time prospecting for a framework which could accommodate all the information that was accumulating.
Ultimately Gooch developed a framework and theory of human personality in terms of dualities, such as unconscious versus consciousness, religion versus science, magic versus logic, dreaming
versus waking. In his list are two key comparisons: psychic phenomena versus materialism, and Neanderthal man versus modern man.

Gooch’s great insight was that while modern humans might manifest occasional psychic phenomena,Neanderthals “certainly possessed abilities in respect of the purely paranormal that far
exceeded our own.” According to Gooch, we modern humans are literally the result of the dualities coming together, the biological interbreeding of Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons (that is so-called
“modern humans,” Homo sapiens) and the melding of Neanderthal religious beliefs and cultural practices with Cro-Magnon societal elements even as Cro-Magnons may have come to physically
dominate, and even apparently exterminate, the earlier Neanderthals.

Paul Rincon, "Neanderthals `were flame-haired' ", BBC News (25 October2007), posted at (Accessed 7 January 2011);Anonymous, "Ancient DNA Reveals That
Some Neanderthals Were Redheads", ScienceDaily (26 October 2010), posted at (Accessed 7 January 2011).

Stan Gooch, The Dream Culture of the Neanderthals: Guardians of the Ancient Wisdom, Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions, 2006, 105 (Originally published under the title Guardians of the
Ancient Wisdom, London: Wildwood House, 1979

Continued on Next Page
This is what we previously was led to
believe the Neanderthal looked like.
Gooch also asserted that Neanderthals never fully went extinct, writing, Actual Neanderthals at this
very moment in time – that is, now, today – still survive and live at the edges of our civilisation. Gooch
cites, for instance, the research of anthropologist Myra Shackley, who tantalisingly suggests that the
legendary Almas ("wildmen") of the Caucasus and Outer Mongolia may in fact represent relict
Neanderthals. In one famous account a female Almas was captured in the nineteenth century. She was
described as having skin of "a grayish-black colour, covered with reddish hair, longer on her head than
elsewhere… She had a large face with big cheek bones, muzzle-like prognathous jaw and large
eyebrows, big white teeth and a `fierce expression'." She sounds very much like a Neanderthal! First
kept for some years in a stone enclosure, she later was kept in a cage, and finally in a house. She
learned to obey simple orders and used branches and stones as tools. She became pregnant by her
captors and while her first several infants died, she subsequently gave birth to two sons and two
daughters who in turn produced children of their own via mating with other humans. This is all in line
with Gooch's hypotheses concerning Neanderthals. Note that the "primitive" state of the Almas may be
because they are relict populations who have DEGENERATED from the Neanderthal prime of 50,000
or so years ago.   
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