Shell artifacts from the collection of Brad and Mary Sutherland  @2016
Mary Sutherland @2016
Reference: WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 17, No. 1

Scattered throughout a wide range of archeological literature one finds only a random mention of aboriginal uses of shell or of shell objects of
pre-historic Native American Indian and ancient Mound builder workmanship. However, they still do today survive among modern tribes as a special
spoon for administering a sacred drink in the Medicine Dance.

From the very nature of shell, being destructible in character, shell relics are rarely preserved from remote periods, and it is only by reason of their
inhumation with
burials that they appear among antiquities at all.

With reference to the age of shell relics, W. H. Holmes, in a treatise on "Art in Shell of the Ancient Americans," states that "specimens obtained from the
mounds of the
Mississippi valley have the appearance of great antiquity, but beyond the internal evidence of the specimens them- selves we have no reliable data
upon which to base an estimate of time. The age of these relics is often rendered still less certain by the presence of intrusive interments."

The abundance of lakes and streams in Wisconsin, teeming with mollusks, served the Wisconsin aborigines as a source for their supply of shells.
Weapons, traps or nets were not necessary in the capture of mollusks; a stone to break the shell sufficed for all purposes. So man in his most primitive
condition must have resorted to mollusks for the food which they afforded. In fact, clams were so major a part of the food supply of these ancient
people that many writers refer to them as the "Clam Eaters."

From the writing of the Winnebago cooking and eating utensils, Dr. Paul Radin (Eth. Ann. 37, "The Winnebago Tribe"), states: "With regard to the kind
of cooking and eating utensils used in the old days, there exists even among the Indians themselves considerable difference of opinion. According to
some, their ancestors never used wooden uten- sils, mills, spoons or plates, but utilized shells of various kinds or other natural objects suitable to their
needs. For dishes and spoons of various kinds and sizes, shells were

Although carefully shaped spoons have been found in some of the adjacent areas, no special shaping, however, appeared on any of the lighter clam
shell spoons found at the Aztalan site in Wisconsin

The bivalved shells, when used as domestic utensils, do not present a great variety of form, alterations consisting chiefly in carving out a kind of handle
or tang, by which device hot food could be eaten without danger of burning the fingers. This tang was produced by cutting away portions of the anterior
and basal margins of the shell, leaving the salient angle projecting. The margin which was presented to the lips in eating or drinking was sometimes
rounded and polished, while the outer edge of the ladle was occasionally ornamented with notches. Usually fashioned
from Unio shells, these spoons, cups and ladles were used for dipping up food and drink.
The specimen presented here is without a handle and came from a site in Florida.  

Private Collection of Brad and Mary Sutherland, Winslow Illinois
Life of the Mound Builders and
Native American Indians
Brad and Mary Sutherland

Shell Implements
2. Shell Spoons
Virtual Museum for Ancient Antiquities and Artifacts by Mary and Brad Sutherland
Life of the Mound Builders and
Native American Indians
Brad and Mary Sutherland

1.  Shell Implements
2. Shell Spoons
Exploring the ancient man and artifacts with Mary Sutherland

According to the Wikipedia the term “Reaching Heaven” is a
common description in temple tower inscriptions. The name Babylon
derives from the native Akkadian ‘Bab-ilu’, which means ‘Gate or
Gateways of the Gods’.

Based off these descriptions, the purpose of the ziggurats or great
temple towers, such as Babylon, may have included “Heavenly
Gateways” or “Transport Stations” for the gods.

To learn more about the ancient star gates and the Blue Stones of Ea
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