copyright 2004 Mary Sutherland
Continued from Page One.

"Herodotus describes 'a place in Libya,' beyond the Pillars of Hercules (i.e. past the Straits of Gilbralta)
where the Carthaginians traded for precious metals. He wrote that the local natives used SMOKE
SIGNALS to communicate over long distances  (Herodotus, 4: 196)

Mormons identify the Mound Builders to the Nephites and Lamanites  Elder Charles B. Thompson was one of
the first Mormon writers to identify the "mound-builders" with the Nephites whose story is told in the Book of Mormon. According to
the Book of Mormons, there were two races here ages ago. One was the Nephites and the other were the Lamanites.  The  
Nephites  were a white skinned, red haired , civilized, industrious people... whereas the Lamanites were an idle, savage, and
vicious people delighting in war and bloodshed.
..  The order was given to wipe the Nephites off the face of the earth,
along with all record of their existence. (Deut.) In some battles  thousands were slain who were piled up in heaps
upon the face of the land and then earth thrown upon them. This may account for some of the numerous mounds and
tumuli found in this country

Josiah Priest, American Antiquities, was one of the first to give full documented accounts of this lost race, based on abundance of
proof from recent discoveries.
History informs this  nation of Nephites were brought down and destroyed by the
Lamanites... God stirred up the Lamanites to camp against them round about, and to raise forts against them with a
mount, and thus they were brought down. (Deut.)
After Priest completed his report, most of his  books and documents
concerning this was destroyed.

The wars of the Jaredites (Nephites) and  the Lamanites

According to the Book of Mormons, after the Genesis Flood , during the time of 'The Tower of Babel, a group sailed
from the Region of the Tower of Babel to North America . This group of peoples were the Jaredites.  According to the
Morman Book of Ether, a group of people called the Jaredites  fled the Tower of Babel at least 3000 years before
Christ.   Because they were a righteous people the LORD did not confound their language, and a Prophet led them
called "The Brother of Jared" (his actual name was Mahonri Moriancumr).

In the year 1883 B.C. an invasion of Spain took place from the confines of North Africa. Having become a civilized land and
wealthy due to changes in climate and the presence of many producing gold mines, Spain aroused the greed of Egypt and other
North African nations. A king by the name of GERION or DEABUS, with a large army and many ships, conquered Spain and forced
the inhabitants to dig gold for their new African overlords. Many Spanish slaves died from overwork under this tyranny"
slew Gerion in 1849 B.C. ,, upon which part of his tribe took to ship and sailed to the New World. A tradition found
among the Toltecs of Mexico and preserved by Ixtlilxochitl declares there once were giants in their land. Even the
date of the arrival of these giants has been preserved by the Toltec historian. It was 520 years after the flood.

The First Battle of Cummorah
By 600 BC the Jaredites had divided into two warring camps.. Their armies fought  on the Hill Ramah (which is also the Hill
Cummorah and which is now located in Western New York State).  A man named Ether "hides " the records of his people (gold

The Second Battle of Cummorah and the Nephites

Mosiah 5:65 mentions a Nephite search party had come across ruins of an earlier civilization (Jaredite). To prove this find they
brought back 24 gold plates and some armor and weapons. The breastplates are descibed as large.

About 100 BC, a group of Nephites (called the Limhites) who had broken away from the main body of Nephites migrate to the area
near the Hill Cummorah. They find the gold plates of the Jaredites. Later they are reunited with the main body of Nephites and add
the Jaredite plates to the main body of plates

A thousand years after the Jaredite battle on the Hill Ramah, the Nephites and Lamanites battle their way Northward until they
arrive at the same hill (now called Cummorah). They also fight to the last Nephite warrior. The Lamanites who survive will become
the American Indians. After the Final Battle, a man named Moroni buries the gold plate records of his people in the hill. Fourteen
hundred years later the Mormons 'claim'  he returns as the Angel Moroni and leads Joseph Smith to the plates (1823)

Nothing is  mentioned more prominently in the Jaredite records than the Hill Shim where their great battle of destruction took place.
This being so, the records were probably found in or near the Hill Shim (or Cum) which gave the Nephites an apposite warning of
their  own future should they  disobey the commandments of God, as well as a place name to tinker with and transform into their
own tongue. It may also have given Ammaron the idea to hide his own records in the same hill, where Mormon recovered them
years later.. The same association of name and place similarly seems to have given Mormon's son Moroni the idea to hide the
records, with his additions, in another hill some twenty-three hundred miles to the north following his own lost battles.

Nothing is more common in the study of languages than the observation of interchange and "drift" of vowels and consonants.
Ramah is obviously an earlier form of Cumorah, "ramah = mora". And it is  suspected that  Cu was a Nephite addition, being
probably equivalent to whatever was particularly striking about the hill to the Nephites. Cu-morah is therefore probably an iterative
of the same description of the hill in two separate languages.

Most  Book of Mormon scholars take it for granted that there were two Cumorahs: one in Central America where the Nephites lives
out most of their history; the other in Western New York state near the Finger Lakes where Joseph Smith found the plates. Again,
nothing is more common than for migrating folk to take place names with them and apply them to new sites.

Shim (meaning hill of the land of Shem?) was known to both the Jaredites and Nephites, and that it was in the hill Shim where
Ammaron deposited his records --  and from which Mormon later took them. The Book of Mormon index (p. 329) confirms that
Ramah and Cumorah refer to this same hill  and it would not be too difficult for one to link Shim with the Central American
Cumorah. The  consonantal shifts into the change in pronunciation since the letter C commonly undergoes a sound shift from "k"
to "ch" or "sh" and vice versa., as in modern Italian, Romanian, and Hebrew (remember how Joshua tested the Canaanite
infiltrators by having them pronounce the word "shibboleth"? The Canaanites could pronounce it only as "shibolet" .. It seems the
"th" sound has been retained only in modern Icelandic, English, and Spanish. This Shim = Cum + Ramah (or "morah").

Book of Mormon scholar John Sorenson suggests that Shim actually lay between the Jaredite land of Moron (source of Moroni's
name? [fellow from (or born in ) Moron]) and the hill Ramah, or Cumorah. Sorenson's reading of the B of M puts Shim not far from
the eastern seashore, south of modern Veracruz, probably in the Tuxtlas mountain mass,  in the Sierra Madres some 80 miles
further south. . Sorenson adds that no place was of greater importance in Nephite history since they struggled to the death for
almost 35 years in or near Shim in southern Veracruz.

Veracruz is on the Gulf of Mexico. The  Nephites must have fought in slow retreat from the area of the narrow neck of land  
northward over many generation. They would thus have been compelled to retreat along the Gulf Coast until they hit the
Mississippi River. Because of its width near the Gulf, they'd have had to retreat almost straight north along its west bank until
reaching a point where the river could be crossed. This would have brought them to the Finger Lakes area just south of Lake Erie,
the exact location of the Second Cumorah near which the Nephites were wiped out. Anthropologists have found enormous stacks
of bones in this very area, indicating some mighty pre-Columbian battles in the region. And given the fact that the modern Indian
tribes of the region were never very numerous, one wonders where else all the bones could have come from. Besides which we
know that Moroni was exhausted and probably wounded during his last battle and could not have wandered far to hide the plates.
And Joseph Smith found the plates about 1200 years later in this exact location.

In brief, while I can't tell you where the Nephites found the Jaredite record, it is recorded by the Mormons that  Moroni had it (see
Ether 13:1) and so in all probability did his father Mormon -- and possibly even more remote Nephite ancestors. Just before their
final overthrow, a man by the name of Mormon took their record containing their history and sacred writings. .


The Wallam Olum -- The Red Record -- is the Delaware's record of their ancient history, told in the form of an epic song.
"Recorded in pictures and words, the saga tells of the rise to glory of the Lenni Lenape and their great Lenape family, also called
the Algonquians, the most populous and widespread Native American language group in ancient North America" (The Red
Record, translated and annotated by David McCutchen. Garder City, NY: Avery Publishing Group, Inc. 1993. )

As the Lenape migration neared the Mississippi River, they came upon agricultural lands where permanent settlements became
The Lenape soon discovered that farther to the east were the powerful people called the TALEGAS
  According to Heckewelder [an early missionary], the Lenape arrived at the Mississippi and followed it downstream to where it
meets the Missouri River. This is the location of  the  great walled city of Cahokia, near where east St. Louis is today. It was then a  
commercial, political, and religious center of the last and most spectacular era of Mound Builder culture -- the Mississippian
Temple Mound phase.
Cahokia has been described as "a cross between New York, Washington, D.C., and the Vatican."
The Red Record: The Wallum Olam, p. 107.


A.J. Conant, a member of the Academy of Science of St. Louis, Missouri, is quoted below:

Atop the mounds constantly burned the flames that were only extinguished at the end of the old year and were
relighted by the rays of the sun when the priests focused the rays of the newly born Sun on the wood of the
sacrificial fires. This took place amidst the most extraordinary solemnity. -- The Roots of the American Indian, p. 59.
According to early reports the fires were extinguished during the winter solstice when the days became shortest and the sun
reached the lowest point in the southern sky, and the weather became very cold. "Then, to give life to the dying sun, the rays of
the king of the heavens were focused on the altar of the sacrifices in order that, with the light of the fire that burned, he could see
his way back to the north" (ibid., p. 53). This is the EXACT same ceremony that was celebrated in ancient Rome, Egypt and
Babylon! The people who constructed the mounds and the pyramids all paid homage to the same gods because they were of one
blood and language.
Foremost among their gods was the PLUMED SERPENT called Piasa


The ancient people not  only had developed a great urban civilization based upon an agrarian economy but construsted  the
ingenious system of interlocking canals. With amazing skill, the engineers developed an internal system of navigation, linking the
lakes and rivers with the various metropolitan centers of the region, and it was by means of these interconnecting waterways that
the cities received the needed produce. The Mississippi River served as the principal transportation artery. Dr. G.C. Swallow, in
referring to one of these canals, said, "One of them, that I examined, measured 53 feet wide and was 14 feet deep." More of these
canal  system was created interlinking water routes from the Great Lakes
Many archaeologists and investigators say that the 'artificial' rivers in the southern part of the United States are a gift handed
down by this mysterious race

Wonders of the Lowlands by L.J. DuPre - Excerpt:

“About twenty years ago Elijah Cheek, who during the late war sought the Chief Magistracy of Arkansas at the hands of President Lincoln, was engaged
in constructing a plank road from Mound city, five miles above Memphis to Marion, the capital of Crittenden County, ten miles west of Memphis. In
making excavations and embankments Mr. Cheek discovered strangely shaped bricks of which specimens were sent to the writer of this memoir. They
were made of grayish clay nine by 12 inches in width and length and four inches thick. Mr Cheek supposed from the number of ruins which he found
every fe rods along the route of this old military road that Spaniards, when they held the country, built palaces every where and grew enormously rich by
cultivating the lowlands. He finally accepted the conclusion, after hearing a curious recitation of mound builder's history written by the late Cornelias
Mathews of New York that the old military road was not the product of modern but of ancient skill and toil. He then saw how the ridge it traverses is
artificial, how it is wider where the richest mound builder built his domicile and how it is true that these people lifted up in the lowlands not only
countless canals and aguadas, but mounds and dug count-absolutely created, by uplifting the earth that constituted them, broad farms of hundreds
and even thousands of acres.

We of modern times are boastful of the triumphs of engineering skill the bridges rivers upheaves levees and builds railways. Thee mound builders
achieved mightier tasks and constructed road beds that stagger credulity and dug canals infinitely more serviceable than railways every where in the
lowlands. Floods ruinous to civilization and wealth were rendered by them wholly impossible. Canals were not only the cheapest agencies of
commerce, but the area of water service exposed to the action of the sun's rays was not materially lessened, as would occur if levees could effect their
purpose and wail in the river. No such changes in climatic or hygrometrical laws resulted as would reader, by producing wet and dry seasons, the
successful cultivation of cotton impossible. These mound builders were wiser than we. They cultivated the lowlands, first regulating the distribution of
water, and making the country healthful by this useful system of drainage; and then doubtless there were at Memphis, as at St. Louis and Loisville, and
other points designated by remains of the mound builders greatest works, magnificent cities.”

In estimating the period at which these people occupied the Mississippi Valley, Mr. Du Pre bases his calculations on the fact that the ruins of their work
are not found lower down the river than at a a distance of 325 miles from its mouth. As the Mississippi makes land at the rate of nearly a mile in eight
years, it would follow that a period of about 3000 years must have elapsed since the city was built at the (then) mouth of the river , the present site of
Natchez, Miss. The statement is made by Du Pre as follows: “The river has grown 325 miles in length since the mound builders ceased to follow its
curse downward from the Lake Superior copper mines to the Mexican Gulf and thus the conclusion is deduced that quite 3000 years have elapsed
since the people known as mound builders utterly disappeared.”

The Mound Builders  - The Ancient Ones- The Giants - The Men of Old - The Mound Builders -  Mound Builders
Mounds of Wisconsin - Mound Builders of Wisconsin - Effigy Mounds - Conical Mounds- Ceremonial Mounds -
Conical mounds  located off W going into Rochester, Wisconsin several miles
from Burlington. This mound is located in the public hunting grounds and
wetland area across from Signal Hill
Did you know that
Berbers had
Mohawk Haircuts
w/ feathers in hair -
Just like the Native
American Indian
that came into our
history much later  
Clovis People Not First To Populate
North America, New Evidence
Suggests ScienceDaily (Feb. 27, 2007)

The belief that the Clovis People were
the first to populate North America
some 11,500 years ago has been widely
challenged in recent years, and a Texas
A&M University anthropologist has
found evidence he says could be the
final nail in the coffin for the Clovis
first model.
Michael Waters, director of the Center for the Study of
the First Americans at Texas A&M, is the lead author of
the paper
"Redefining the Age of Clovis: Implications for
the Peopling of the Americas,
" that appears in the Feb.
23 (Friday) issue of Science.

Waters' paper revises the original dates for the Clovis
time period, suggesting that humans likely inhabited
the Americas before Clovis, who have long been
considered to be the first inhabitants of the New World.

"It was always argued that Clovis represented the first
people who came to the Americas," Waters says. "The
new dating that we did indicates that the Clovis
Complex ranges from 11,050 to 10,900 radiocarbon
years before the present."

"The long-range implications of our study is
that it will get scientists looking for
pre-Clovis evidence with a lot more vigor and
thinking differently about Clovis," Waters
says. "This will force us to develop a new
model to explain the peopling of the
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Mary Sutherland's work focuses on psychical research (paranormal, or what is now
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