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The Forgotten Races of North America and the Earthen Mounds - Manipulation of North American History

The Holy Records of North America  from  
"Revelations – Truths Revealed" by Mary Sutherland

While effort and time has been spent in far away lands, tracing time worn trails, breaking through hardened lava of volcanic ruins, sifting through the dust of the Egyptian catacombs,
records lie scattered in every state, legibly written on the surface of the soil, in the earthen mounds, effigies, ruins and the Herculean embankments of North America. Many of the
ruins of the Old World countries shadow in comparison to North America's magnificent `artificial' hills and waterways, constructed from the labor of a `forgotten' people.

The historical significance behind the earthen mounds should never be undermined. The earthen mounds were `altars of earth' and were not only recognized, in biblical times, as a
holy place but were universally used as an `abiding record'. They stand today not only as testament of the antediluvian age of man but to provide us with the first records of man
during and after the great cataclysms.

"In the days of Adam, sacrifice was offered unto the lord." It was then written, "As soon as the waters of the flood receded, Noah built an altar upon which to offer sacrifice unto the
Lord." This being the first work of Noah, in his advent from the Ark, it would date the custom of the construction of altars to `antediluvian origin'…a time `before' the flood.

It is biblically recorded that during the migrations of Lot and Abraham - by divine authority - an `altar of earth' was to be built at each place of sojourning and wherever any
circumstance of importance occurred.

"An altar of earth shalt thou make unto me; and shall sacrifice thereon thy burnt-offering and thy peace- offering, thy sheep and oxen. In all places where I record my name, I will
come unto thee, and I will bless thee." (Exodus 24-26).

`In the days of `Peleg', Noah divided the earth between his sons, Shem, Ham and Jephet and they were to go forth and multiply. Africa was given to Ham, the temperate zones to
Shem and the frigid zones to Japhet. In every zone they occupied we find the earthen mounds… in a great variety of form and arrangement.

The Berber Project by the late Dr. Barry Fell (Professor Emeritus of Harvard University) states that the Vikings believed North America was, at one time, a peninsula of North Africa.
Herodotus described a place ' beyond the Pillars of Hercules where the Carthaginians traded for precious metals. He wrote that the local natives used `smoke signals' to communicate
over long distances. (An obvious reference to an ancient custom the Native American Indian adopted from the ancient people.)

We also find historical evidence and the significance of the earthen mounds and temples in Numbers 33:53 where it is recorded that the Israelites were commanded by their god to
pluck down and destroy the monuments, temples and statues of the idolaters that built `high places' and worshiped pictures.

By the 1880's, due to the fear of discovery brought on by an increased interest in archeology, the establishments of Christendom ordered that all archaeological excavations be
brought under the strictest control, with all funding and undertakings first being approved by the designated authorities. In 1891, the Egyptian Exploration Fund was established in
Britain and, based off its first page of Memorandum and Articles of Association; the modus operandi for modern archeology was established – `to promote excavation work
for the purpose of elucidating or illustrating the Old Testament narrative.' This meant if something was found supporting written biblical history, the public would be informed. If the
discovery and its information did not `support the church's interpretation' it was `shelved'.

From the desires of James Smithson to create a legacy for himself, the Smithsonian Institution was born. Smithson died in 1829, leaving his fortune to his nephew James Henry
Hungerford, stipulating that if Hungerford died without an heir, his inheritance would be passed over to the United States Government to be used for the increase and
diffusion of knowledge. Hungerford died in 1835, without an heir, and the United States Government inherited more than a half million dollars. However, due to some controversy, they
did not `officially' accept the money until 1846.

In 1881 the Congress of the United States gave $5000 to the Smithsonian Institution to conduct archeological excavations for the study of the pre-historic mound builders and their
earthen works. Mr. Wills de Haas of Wheeling, who had studied the Grave Green Mound in Moundsville, West Virginia, was the first to be put in charge of the project. After a year he
resigned and was replaced by Cyrus Thomas who continued the project until 1890. By the completion of the project in 1890, over 2000 mounds and earthworks had been studied
in the eastern United States.

The Smithsonian wanted to re-write history by suppressing any evidence that gave credibility to the School of Thought known as `Diffusion', which is a belief that throughout history
there was an interaction of people with world wide travel and trade. Their goal was to replace `Diffusion' with `Isolation', creating a history whereas civilizations were born and existed,
with little or no contact between them. With this new thought, they maintained that even contact between the civilizations of the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys was non-existent except
on a rare occasion. This new teaching was not only false but ridiculous, when you consider that the river system reached to the Gulf of Mexico and these civilizations lived as
close to each other as the opposite shore of the Gulf.

Manipulation of the history of North America and its cultures was perpetuated through the historical fabrications of their appointed archeologists and historians, based off the political
and religious agendas of the time. In an attempt to instill racial bias against the Native American Indian, early American and European archaeologists carefully selected Native
American skulls that depicted a being of inferior intelligence. These skulls would then be used as a teaching aide to demonstrate the superiority of the European over the Indian.
Scholars would then follow up by disseminating this written propaganda. An example of this can be found in the words of an important government official and popular writer, Henry
Schoolcraft (1793-1864), who was ironically married to a woman who was half Native American Indian.

"The Indian has a low, bushy brow, beneath which a dull, sleepy,
half-closed eye seems to mark the ferocious passions that are dormant
within. The acute angles of the eyes seldom present the obliquity so
common in the Malays and the Mongolians. The color of the eye is
almost uniformly a tint between black and grey; but even in young
persons it seldom has the brightness, or expresses the vivacity, so
common in the more civilized races."

By 1882, the political agenda had changed and there was no longer an  interest or desire to profile the Native American Indian as a savage or an intellectually void people. Being that
the public opinion of the Native American Indian was very low, they opted to use the Smithsonian archeologists and historians to once again manipulate historical facts and change
the history of North America and its cultures. The Smithsonian created the Bureau of Ethnology and Executive John Wesley Powell hired Cyrus Thomas to head up the
fieldwork. By 1894, Cyrus Thomas muddied the waters of our history again by publishing the Report on the Mound Explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology, proclaiming that the
mound builders were `not' a vanished race but the ancestors of the Native American Indian. From that point of time, any focus of pre-existing cultures prior to the
Native American Indian was squelched. Once the question of the identity of the mound builders was directed away from any pre-existing advanced cultures, the archeologists then
blindly focused all their attention on the development of North American Indian cultures- regardless of validity. On a positive note, however, by linking the living factions of the Native
American people with the more ancient mound building people, a faintly successful preservation of the mounds came about.

Native American Indian Tradition Speaks on the Survivors of Atlantis in North America

The Berber described the inhabitants of Atlantis as wealthy in gold, silver, copper and tin. Not content with these riches, they launched a military invasion of other lands, cut short by
the Great Flood that drowned their homeland.

The Atep, Siouan name given to the calumet or `peace pipe', is the single most sacred object among all Native American tribes and smoked only ritually. It was given to them by the
Manitou (Great Spirit) immediately after a catastrophic conflagration and flood destroyed a former world or Age, which was ruled over from a "big lodge" on an
island in the Atlantic Ocean.

The survivors were commanded by the Great Spirit to fashion the ceremonial pipes from Catlinite (pipestone), a mineral found only in the southwest corner of Minnesota (Pipestone
National Monument) and Barron County (Pipestone Mountain), in northwestern Wisconsin. According to legend, in these two places alone, the bodies of the drowned sinners had
come to rest, their red flesh transformed into easily worked stone. The bowl of the ceremonial pipe represents the female principle, while the stem stands for the male, signifying the
men and women who perished in the flood. Uniting these two symbols and smoking tobacco in the pipe was understood as a commemoration of the cataclysm and admonition to
subsequent generations against defying the will of God.

`Atali' lives in the memory of the Cherokee as the home of their ancestors before the Great Flood. The Cherokee called their ancestors `Atsilagigai', which is a rendering of the word
for `Atlantean'. The Cherokee word `Atsilagigai' means `Men from the Place of the Red Fire' (volcanic island).

The Mississippi Choctaw Indians speak of a time when their people were invaded by the `Na-hu-lo' or `The Horned Giants'. The Choctaw described them as a white race of giants with
red and blonde hair. These giants wore an extra layer of heavy skin, which made them impenetrable to their arrows, spears and war clubs. The invaders were said to have been
cannibals and feasted on the bodies of their enemies.

The Choctaw also tell of yet another race of men who they called the `Na-hon-lo'. These people were also of large stature, with fair complexion, linking their origins to the place of the
rising sun or the East. Unlike the other group, they were peaceful and tiller of the soil. According to W. D. Funkhouse, Professor of Zoology, author of Ancient Life in Kentucky, these
people domesticated the great mammoth and used them as beasts of burden. The mammoths were closely herded and were responsible for breaking down and devouring the
forests, creating the prairies that exist today.

The Chippewa, Sandusky and Tawa Tribes also tell of the existence of `bearded' giants. According to Jonathan Brooks, his father, Benjamin Brooks, lived with the Indians for fourteen
years and became well-acquainted with their language and traditions. Benjamin told his son that, according to their accounts, the first to occupy this country was a giant race with
black beards. Later, another giant race came to the land and either killed or drove off the race of black beards.

Ohio Native American Indian traditions retain the story of two separate races of humans that pre-existed their culture. One was the archaic people, described as having slender
bodies and long narrow heads. The other group was the Adena people, described as having massive bone structure and short heads.

The Keetoowah relate the story of a race of giants, known as the Ani-Ku-Tani, a clan of priest-kings and religious aristocracy. The Kutani came to abuse their powers and started
oppressing the Keetoowah, taking the best their society could produce and forcing the Keetoowah to build their mounds for religious temples. Not only were the Kutani
greatly feared but their oppressive taxation and arrogant domination became deeply resented. This eventually led to warfare resulting in the extermination of the Kutani.

Robert Conley, author of The White Path, writing of the massacre of the Ani Ku Tani, stated that the victory over the Kutani was a hollow one. Without the structure provided by the
Kutani, the society of the Real People (Cherokee) collapsed with infighting and increasing violent squabbling. The Kutani had provided them with protection and
the Cherokee were left vulnerable to Suwalis, another group who were seeking power over the region and its people. Conley stated that at least one of these priest-kings survived the
massacre. He was taken captive by the Cherokee, knowing that he was the only person alive that still carried the knowledge of the great secrets of the ancient priesthood along with a
sacred writing that brought physical shape to the language.

Many believe that Prophet Joseph Smith visited the Cherokee in the early 1800's and heard the story of the Ani Ku Ta Ni. It was there that he learned they possessed a writing
system and a written record of their history and genealogy.

In 1825, Tuscorora David Cusic wrote, "The Ronnongwetowanca were a powerful tribe of giants and had a considerable habitation. After having endured the outrages of these giants
for a great long time, the people banded together to destroy them. With a final force of about 800 warriors, they successfully annihilated the abhorrent Ronnongwetowanca."
According to Cusic, this happened around 2,500 years before the arrival of Columbus in America.

Ancient Miners

"Look for the country of Aztalan, the original country of the Aztecs, as high up at least as the 42nd parallel north; whence, journeying, they at last arrived in the vale of Mexico. In that
vale the earthen mounds of the far north become the elegant stone pyramidal and other structures whose remains are now found." H. P. Blavatsky

The Megalith Builders (4500- 1500 B.C.) were a race of people, erased from our history, who had achieved a knowledge of the sciences far superior to ours today. Traces of their
culture in the Americas can be found in the stone structures they left behind during the Bronze Age.

According to an article in the November 1948 issue of Atlantis, Dr. P.L. Collignon's hypotheses is that the Rhesus negative (Rhneg) Basques were one of the many groups of
refugees from Atlantis. Archeologist Sykes, stated in an article he wrote on Blood Groupings in the July 1959 issue of New World Antiquity that the Rhesus negative factor was
introduced into Europe thousands of years ago by a migrating people. Although we find a small percentage of rhesus negative people spread throughout Europe; we find a high
percentage among the Basques, the Albanians, and Guanches of the Canary or Fortunate Isles.

Approximately 3000 B.C. mining operations began at Tyranena, an area near Lake Mills, Wisconsin. This became one of the bases of operation for the early Tyranenian miners and
traders of copper mined in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. From Tyranena, the traders traveled the  Rock River to the Mississippi River and then down to the Gulf of Mexico. The
Tyranenians ceased mining operations around 1200 B. C.and left the area. Before leaving they flooded the site, creating a lake to protect their secrets and dead left behind.

In acknowledgement of Tyranena and its people, land was set aside for a park in Lake Mills and given the name Tyranena Park. The park is located on the north end of Rock Lake,
which hides the pyramids under its waters.

According to the lunar date given in Plato's dialogues and the Egyptian records, Atlantis was destroyed in the month of the Goddess Hathor, which corresponds to November 1198 B.
C. date.

Approximately 900 A.D. Aztec astronomer-priests and their miners again established a point camp, at the abandoned Tyranenian settlement. Naming the settlement Aztalan, it
became a center for their intercontinental copper trade. Around 1300 A.D. they ceased operations and moved southward to Mexico. According to Baron Humboldt, when the
Spaniards overran Mexico it was inhabited by a people known as the `Azteekin' or `Aztekas' who were usurpers that came from a country in the north, known as Aztalan. Its location
was north of the forty-second degree of north latitude." (He further examined hieroglyphs or pictures in the Mexican or Azteka manuscript, which depicts this migration.)

H. P. Blavatsky, wrote in The Secret Doctrine, that Baron Humboldt said, "Look for the country of Aztalan, the original country of the Aztecs, as high up at least as the 42nd parallel
north; whence, journeying, they at last arrived in the vale of Mexico. In that vale the earthen mounds of the far north become the elegant stone pyramidal and other structures whose
remains are now found."

Dr. Barry Fell, Bronze Age America, cites a passage from the Harris Payrus claiming that some of King David's huge stockpile of copper ore, used for the building of King Solomon's
Temple, came from the Phoenician's North American trading routes:

After the defeat of the `Sea People', Ramses III, Pharaoh of the XX Dynasty (identified with Plato's Atlanteans) declares in the Harris Papyrus:

"I sent out an expedition to the land of `Ataka' for the great foundries of copper which are in that place. Our transport ships were loaded. Having located the foundries loaded with
metal, loaded as myriads upon our ships, they sailed back to Egypt, arriving safely. The cargo was piled in stores as hundreds of thousands of the color of gold. I let the people see
them like marvels."

Frank Joseph, author of The Lost Pyramids of Rock Lake, explains that Ataka is an Egyptian linguistic inflection of the Atlanteans' original name for Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The
prefix `At' was often used to designate Atlantean holdings.

Plato describes them as pre-eminent miners of the world's highest- grade copper.

Ramses mentions `foundries', which suggests that large-scale mining operations existed throughout the Upper Great Lakes area. After the Atlanteans (sea people) were defeated
and captured by Ramses, they divulged the location of their copper sources in North America. The Egyptian ships then ventured a transatlantic crossing. He does not
indicate any trade negotiations or military operations in Ataka, but simple seizure of the vast amounts of copper, as though there was no one there with whom to barter or fight.

According to an article in the November 1948 issue of Atlantis, Dr. P.L. Collignon's hypotheses is that the Rhesus negative (Rh Negative) Basques were one of many groups of
refugees from Atlantis. Archeologist Sykes, stated in an article he wrote on Blood Groupings in the July 1959 issue of New World Antiquity that the Rhesus
negative factor was introduced into Europe thousands of years ago by a migrating people. Although we find a small percentage of rhesus negative people spread throughout Europe;
we find a high percentage among the Basques, the Albanians, and Guanches of the Canary or Fortunate Isles.

Aztalan's ancient miners' veneration of the dog links them to the people of the Canary Islands and Egypt. The root `CAN' is a derivative of the word Cain or Canaan and is
Latin for Dog. (CAN-ine) After the early Romans made their first visit to the Islands in the Second Century B. C., they began calling the natives `dog people' due
to their worship of the dog. This type of worship mirrors the Egyptian veneration of Anubis, the dog-headed god who led the souls from the material world, through the veil, into the
after life. In the Egyptian City of Cynopolis (Dog City), tens of thousands of mummified dogs were found buried.

Purchase Mary Sutherland's book "Revelations…Truths Revealed" at

According to the Cocopa Indian tribe, giants of the past were able to carry logs that six of the humans failed to budge. Humans can roughly carry twice their body. The average
human weighs 150 pounds (carrying weight of 300 lbs in group) times six humans, you now have the ability to carry 1,800 pounds. Now let us take into account that these six humans
could not move the logs, and then they would have weighed well over 1,800 lbs. These giants were carrying 1,800 pound logs with ease. Super human strength is often attributed to
the Nephilim.


Accounts by Richard L. Dieterle

Giants are a malignant race who flourished in primordial times before they were brought into check by the great spirits. Although they would frequently sojourn on the island earth
where humans live, their home is in a Spiritland on the other side of the Ocean Sea. [1] Since two Wolf Spirits reached it floating on a small ice berg, it apparently lies in the arctic
north. There the wind blows cold and fierce, and the ground can be covered in snow. [2] On the other side of the ocean, tribes of Giants flourished. Some of them protected their
mortality by removing their hearts and wrapping them in bundles of feathers which they hid away on a platform. These Giants were killed by the Thunderbird, Ocean Duck, who found
their hearts and burned them to ashes. [3] Like other spirits, the Man Eaters can be divided into two tribes: the Good Giants and the Bad Giants. Most seem to have belonged to the
tribe of Bad Giants who indulge their appetite for human flesh, but the Good Giants have belied their name by abandoning the practice of eating people. [4] Originally, they too had
eaten people, but the spirit called "Young Man Gambles Often" (Hotcîtcîwagiogega), caused them to vomit up everything within them, until finally they disgorged ice from their
stomachs. This it was that caused them to eat humans. After that, they enjoyed the same food that humans ate. [5] While the stomachs of Giants contain ice, their heads contain
wampum, which is to say, sea shells. [6]

Not only are the Giants by nature man eaters, as their Hotcâk name Wángerútcge reveals, but male Giants are as tall as trees [7], four times the height of a man. [8] On the other
hand, Giant women, who are particularly noted for their beauty [9], are about the same size as humans. [10] Despite the hostility and dietary proclivities of Giants, humans are part
Giant themselves. Once humans were smaller and rather uniform in size. In ancient times men took Giant women as brides, and over time the admixture of the two bloods produced a
race of variable heights such as we are today. Particularly large humans merely take after their Giant ancestors. [11] Some large human men are thought to be reincarnations of
Giant Spirits, usually of the Good Giant tribe, judging by their benevolence. [12]
One cannibal Giantess, some call "Pretty Woman," had hair said to be, variously, red [13], orange
[14], or yellow.
[15] Despite her superior skill in lacrosse, her life was spared by the victorious good spirits, and she was adopted into human society. [16] In one account she marries
Redhorn's father; in another, Redhorn himself. [17]

The Man Eaters have a mysterious association with ice. Redhorn's father gave his Giant wife, Pretty Woman, an emetic which forced her to vomit up an ice cube. This was found to
be the cause of her cannibalism. [18] There was a race of such man eaters known as "Ice Giants," who in winter would appear around the periphery of villages hoping to pick off
people who strayed too far from the campfire. The Ice Giants were unconquerable by mere mortals, but they could be placated by offerings of tobacco, red feathers, and food, which
were offered in the early evening. [19] The Giants, being confident of their command of the ice, once challenged an incarnated Wolf Spirit to a contest to see who would first succumb
to the cold. The Wolf Spirit won the contest because he was able, unlike the Giants, to radiate heat whenever he sat atop a mound of snow. [20]

Human beings were the favorite food of the Bad Giants who would go to some lengths to get it. On occasions they massacred whole villages in order to eat the inhabitants. [21] Like
other man eaters, such as the Bad Thunderbirds [22] they would let some people live just to fatten them up so that they would be all the tastier later. [23] Good, fat humans,
apparently make excellent soup as well. [24] When the Giants wanted to "eat soup," as they put it, one way to get it was to challenge the humans to games of chance. These games,
however, were not idle sport, but contests in which lives were wagered on the outcome. If the humans won, they would kill the Giants wagered; if the Giants won, they would kill and
eat the humans that they had won. Since the Giants were so large, they almost always won when they played against mortal humans. [25] As a result, many of the good spirits, taking
pity on the abused humans, would descend to earth and give them their aid. Turtle, the spirit who invented war, was the most prominent and active of these. When the Giants
prepared to engage in games or in war, they would generally paint themselves black from head to toe [26], although on other occasions, they were known to have painted themselves
completely red. [27] One of their favorite games was dice. To get their dice, a Giant would pound his chest and cough up birds, which he would then throw up into the air like regular
dice. In keeping with the icy associations of the Giants, the species was usually the snowbird. [28] One of the most popular contests was lacrosse. [29] The Giants would often be led
by an amazon like Pretty Woman. Nevertheless, in whatever game they engaged, they were almost always defeated by the good spirits [30], the single exception being wrestling.
Although they were never able to out-wrestle Turtle, they were able to defeat both Redhorn and the Thunderbird, Storms as He Walks. [31] On another occasion they out-wrestled a
white Wolf Spirit, then killed and ate him. [32] When Morning Star came to earth, he also faced a challenge from the Giants to wrestle. As a warm-up, he grappled with an oak and
pulled the entire tree out by the roots and slammed it to the ground. This so frightened the Giants, that they fled and ceased to bother the humans for decades. [33] Once when
Turtle and Morning Star were on earth to help the mortals, they nearly wiped out the race of Giants, sparing only an old man, a little boy, and an infant girl, whom they forced to eat
grass. After this indignity, they threw them across the sea. [34] More than once the competing Giants were wiped out with the exception of just two individuals. [35]

Despite the conflict between humans and Giants, we know at least one case where the Wangerutcge bestowed a blessing upon a Bear clansman. Four Giant brothers who lived in
the heavens, along with other spirits, gave this man a warbundle and sacred warpath songs that led to many a victory. [36]

There may be a few solitary Giants left, since in historical times an Ice Giant attacked a man on the Wisconsin River between Stevens Point and Wisconsin Rapids. It was only
because he was carrying a powerful medicine with him that he was able to fend off his huge opponent until his friends could come to his rescue. [37]
Others, however, say that this
race of malignant man eaters disappeared completely around 1840 when the last of them was killed off by a Good Giant who reduced himself in size to live among the humans and
bless them. [38] ( *I believe they went underground and now live in the ancient tunnel systems and cities..Sutherland )



The Vatican has been long accused of keeping artefacts and ancient books in their vast cellars, without allowing the outside world access to them. These secret treasures, often of a
controversial historical or religious nature, are thought to be  suppressed by the  Church because they might damage it's credibility,  casting doubt on their official texts.

The Smithsonian has also been accused of being invoved in this coverup. They have been suppressing  archaeological evidence since the late 1800's.  In 1881 the  Smithsonian
began rewriting history , promoting the idea that the Native Americans were the original  Mound Builders. An idea that is accepted today .
They also began a program suppressing evidence that lent credence to the School of Thought, known as DIFFUSIONISM.
* Diffusionism is a belief that throughout history there was  interaction of people with world wide travel and trade.
The Smithsonian opted for the opposite School of Thought, known as ISOLATIONISM.
* Isolationism holds that most civilizations were isolated from each other with very little contact between them -especially those seperated by water.

In this intellectual war that started in the 1880s, it was held that even contact between the civilizations of the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys were rare, and certainly these civilizations
did not have any contact with such advanced cultures as the Mayas, Toltecs, or Aztecs in Mexico and Central America. By Old World standards this is an extreme, and even ridiculous
idea, considering that the river system reached to the Gulf of Mexico and these civilizations were as close as the opposite shore of the gulf. It was like saying that cultures in the Black
Sea area could not have had contact with the Mediterranean.

When the contents of many ancient mounds and pyramids of the Midwest were examined, it was shown that the history of the Mississippi River Valleys was that of an ancient and
sophisticated culture that had been in contact with Europe and other areas. Not only that, the contents of many mounds revealed burials of huge men, sometimes seven or eight feet
tall, in full armour with swords and sometimes huge treasures.

A well-known historical researcher (who shall remain nameless),  told that a former employee of the Smithsonian, who was dismissed for defending the view of diffusionism in the
Americas (i.e. the heresy that other ancient civilizations may have visited the shores of North and South America during the many millennia before Columbus), alleged that the
Smithsonian at one time had actually taken a barge full of unusual artefacts out into the Atlantic and dumped them in the ocean

De Soto's Encounters with Giants
In 1539, probably while the survivors of Narvaez' crew were making their way across the country, another Spanish explorer, Hernando De Soto, sailed nine ships into Tampa Bay.
There he put ashore six hundred lancers, targeteers, cross-bowmen, and harque-busiers, along with two hundred and thirteen horses. As they ventured inland, the first Indians they
encountered were friendly Timucuans. While some of their leaders were giants, most of these people stood, on average, only a foot taller than the explorers. Their vast territory
extended from Tampa Bay north to the present Jacksonville area and west to the Aucilla River, which runs along the eastern border of modern Jefferson County and empties into the

As De Soto marched through the various Indian provinces, he met with their caciques. It was his custom after these conferences to courteously "detain" the cacique and some of his
nobles--as a precaution against attack. He also required them to furnish him with porters. The Indians' reaction to this policy varied. After some reluctance, the cacique of Ocala, "an
Indian of enormous size and amazing strength,"12 finally agreed to become De Soto's "guest." Vitacucho, the cacique in the neighboring province of Caliquin (present-day Alachua
County), consented only after his daughter chanced to fell into De Soto's hands. But even while being detained, Vitacucho and his tall warriors secretly managed two serious
uprisings. Copafi, the cacique of the Apalachee around Tallahassee, described as "a man of monstrous proportions,"13 refused even to meet with De Soto, but a party led by the
governor himself finally captured the giant and brought him in.

After wintering at Ambaica Apalachee, the Spanish explorers crossed over into Georgia. But there they received a kindly reception, with the nation of the Creeks greeting them
everywhere in a warm, friendly manner. The several other caciques who guided them through the Carolinas and into Tennessee were, for the most part, also friendly, and even those
who may have been offended by the governor's invitation to accompany him offered no serious objection. So all went well--until De Soto's company reached the borders of the giant
cacique Tuscaloosa. As suzerain over many caciques, he ruled a wide territory that included most of modern Alabama and Mississippi. Though proud and haughty, Tuscaloosa sent
an embassy headed by his huge son to greet and welcome De Soto and his men.

Tuscaloosa's heir apparent, who, at eighteen years, already stood as tall as his father, came to De Soto while he stayed at Tallise, a large Indian town located on the bank of a great
river. The young giant delivered to the governor the following communication from Tuscaloosa: "The grand cacique of Tuscaloosa, my master, sends me to salute you. He bids me
say, that he is told how all, not without reason, are led captive by your perfection and power; that wheresoever lies your path you receive gifts and obedience, which he knows are all
your due; and that he longs to see you as much as he could desire for the continuance of life. Thus, he sends me to offer you his person, his lands, his subjects; to say, that
wheresoever it shall please you to go through his territories, you will find service and obedience, friendship and peace. In requital of this wish to serve you, he asks that you so far
favor him as to say when you will come; for that the sooner you do so, the greater will be the obligation, and to him the earlier pleasure."14

Dismissing the cacique of Coca, who had accompanied him to Tuscaloosa's borders, De Soto set out to meet with Tuscaloosa. Early on the morning of the third day, the governor, his
master of the camp, and fifteen cavalrymen entered the village where he was quartered. Having heard daily reports from his scouts on De Soto's progress, the Indian chieftain was
prepared to receive them in state. As they rode in, they saw Tuscaloosa stationed on a high place, seated on a mat. Around him stood one hundred of his noblemen, all dressed in
richly colored mantles and plumes. Tuscaloosa appeared to be about forty years old. His physical measurements, writes Garcilaso de la Vega, who accompanied De Soto, "were like
those of his son, for both were more than a half-yard taller than all the others. He appeared to be a giant, or rather was one, and his limbs and face were in proportion to the height of
his body. His countenance was handsome, and he wore a look of severity, yet a look which well revealed his ferocity and grandeur of spirit. His shoulders conformed to his height,
and his waistline measured just a little more than two-thirds of a yard. His arms and legs were straight and well formed and were in proper proportion to the rest of his body. In sum he
was the tallest and most handsomely shaped Indian that the Castilians saw during all their travels."15

As the cavaliers and officers of the camp who preceded De Soto rode forward and arranged themselves in his presence, Tuscaloosa took not the slightest notice of them, even as
they made their horses curvet and caracole as they passed. Determined to excite his at ten-ti on, some spurred their horses up to his very feet, to which "he, with great gravity, and
seemingly with indifference, now and then would raise his eyes, and look on as in contempt."16 He made no move to rise even when De Soto approached. So the governor took him
by the hand, and they walked together to the piazza. There they sat on a bench and talked for several minutes.

Two days later De Soto decided to resume his journey toward Mobile.17 He also decided to take Tuscaloosa with him. On these marches the cacique in custody always rode
alongside the governor. So De Soto ordered a horse for Tuscaloosa. But owing to the cacique's huge size and great weight, not even the largest horse they brought forward was able
to bear him. At last, a pack horse accustomed to heavy burdens proved strong enough to carry the chief. But when he mounted Tuscaloosa's feet almost touched the ground. This
description accords with Garcilaso de la Vega's statement that the chief stood a half-yard taller than the tallest men around him. Though no one recorded Tuscaloosa's actual size,
these two measurements give us some idea of his height. If these descriptions are accurate, then we cannot err too much in estimating his stature at about eight feet.

Even while they were on the trail to Mobile, De Soto's party encountered an ominous sign of what awaited them. Two soldiers turned up missing. The Spaniards suspected that the
Indians caught the two men some distance from camp and killed them. When De Soto questioned Tuscaloosa about their whereabouts, the cacique testily replied that the Indians
were not the white men's keepers. Vigilance was now increased, and the governor dispatched two of his best men to Mobile under the pretext of making arrangements for provisions.
Four days later, as the Spaniards approached the town, the scouts rode out to De Soto and reported that many Indians had gathered inside and that some preparations had been
made. They then suggested the army camp in the woods nearby. Unfortunately, the doughty De Soto refused to heed his scouts' advice.

While the army waited, the governor with his small party approached the town and its high walls. Just then a welcoming committee of painted warriors, clad in robes of skins and head-
pieces with many feathers of very brilliant colors, came out to greet them. A group of young Indian maidens followed, dancing and singing to music played on rude instruments. The
governor entered the town with Tuscaloosa, his son, and the cacique's entourage. Seven or eight men of his own guard plus four cavalrymen also accompanied him. They seated
themselves in a piazza. From here, De Soto saw that there were only about eighty houses, but several of them large enough to hold one thousand to fifteen hundred people.
Unknown to him, more than two thousand Indian warriors now stood in concealment behind these walls, waiting.

After some of the chief men from the town joined him, Tuscaloosa withdrew a short distance from De Soto. With a severe look, he warned the governor and his party to leave at once.
In attempting to regain custody of the chief, a tussle between a Spaniard and an Indian ignited an all-out war. Under a hail of arrows, De Soto and most of his men retreated from the
village. The governor then ordered the town besieged. After a time, the Spaniards gained entry, set fire to the buildings, and conducted a massacre. According to Alvaro Fernandez,
about two thousand five hundred Indians died that day, while only eighteen Spaniards fell. Among the Indian dead was Tuscaloosa's giant son and heir apparent. Tuscaloosa himself
escaped. At the start of the battle, some of his chiefs, wanting to protect his life for the good of their nation, persuaded him to flee Mobile. Tuscaloosa reluctantly agreed, departing
with twenty brave bodyguards soon after the battle began.

(See Arizona Giants; California Giants; Cocopa Giants; Copafi; Coronado's Giant Discoveries; Florida Giants; Graveyards of the Giants; Horned Giants; Indiana Giants; Mississippi
and Texas Giants; Montana's Giants; Ocala; Ohio Giants; San Francisco Giants; Seri Giants; Tuscaloosa; Yuman Giants; also see Barranc de Cobre Giants; Mexico's Giants;
Quiname; Tlaxcala's Giants)

De Vaca and the Giants (See Florida Giants)

Harassments by these Indian giants continued. So Narvaez decided to head south for the gulf coast and escape by the sea. Arriving there after much hardship, he and his men
constructed five crude boats, in order to search along the coast for a Spanish settlement. Unfortunately, a sudden, fierce storm caught them some distance from land. The high winds
drove all the boats, with all their men aboard, far out to sea. All were subsequently lost except Cabeza de Vaca and three companions who managed to reach the shore. They walked
across Texas and northern Mexico, finally reaching the Pacific coast where they linked up with Francisco Vazquez de Coronado in 1541.

(See Arizona Giants; California Giants; Cocopa Giants; Copafi; Coronado's Giant Discoveries; De Soto's Encounters with Giants; Graveyards of the Giants; Horned Giants; Indiana
Giants; Mississippi and Texas Giants; Montana's Giants; Ocala; Ohio Giants; San Francisco Giants; Serf Giants; Tuscaloosa; Yuman Giants; also see Barranc de Cobre Giants;
Mexico's Giants; Quiname; Tlaxcala's Giants)

Freeman, Charles
Michigan-born Charles Freeman could lift fifteen hundred-weight, and "could throw an astounding number of somersaults in succession and run and jump like a deer."21 But he knew
almost nothing about professional boxing. After gazing upon his seven-foot, six-inch frame and witnessing his feats of great strength and agility, one-time British prize-fighter
champion Ben Caunt decided that did not matter. He envisioned great things for Freeman in the ring and persuaded the young man to return with him to London.

Before leaving, Caunt tipped the New York press. The writers, of course, pounced on the story. They built Freeman up, giving him a fictitious record, while the editors caught their
readers' attention with headlines proclaiming that the huge American was crossing the Atlantic to lay claim to the "Championship of the World."

On December 14,1842, near Sawbridgeworth, Freeman fought seventy rounds with William Perry, known as "The Tipton Slasher," but the bout "was adjourned due to darkness
falling." Six days later they resumed the match, "but Perry fell before receiving a blow and was disqualified."22

Freeman gave up boxing for the stage. In early 1843, he appeared at the Olympia Theatre in The Son of the Desert and Demon Changeling, a piece written expressly for him. He
also did a stint with the circus. "His great circus performance," according to a Hunterian Museum report, "was to ride two horses at a time, galloping around the arena, with his arms
above his head balancing a man."23 Perhaps to make ends meet, he later became a barman at the Lion and Ball tavern in Red Lion Street, Holborn.

The giant barman excited the Lion and Ball's regular crowd and attracted many new patrons, who got to see him for only the price of a whiskey.


Ivan T. Sanderson, a well-known zoologist and frequent guest on Johnny Carson's TONIGHT SHOW in the 1960s (usually with an exotic animal with a pangolin or a lemur), once
related a story about a letter he received regarding an engineer who was stationed on the Aleutian island of Shemya during World War II. While building an airstrip, his crew bulldozed
a group of hills and discovered under several sedimentary layers what appeared to be human remains. The Alaskan mound was in fact a graveyard of gigantic human remains,
consisting of crania and long leg bones. The crania measured from 22 to 24 inches from base to crown. Since an adult skull normally measures about eight inches from back to front,
such a large crania would imply an immense size for a normally proportioned human. Furthermore, every skull was said to have been neatly trepanned (a process of cutting a hole in
the upper portion of the skull).
In fact, the habit of flattening the skull of an infant and forcing it to grow in an elongated shape was a practice used by ancient Peruvians, the Mayas, and the Flathead Indians of
Montana. Sanderson tried to gather further proof, eventually receiving a letter from another member of the unit who confirmed the report. The letters both indicated that the
Smithsonian Institution had collected the remains, yet nothing else was heard.


Click Here for More Information on Discoveries of Ancient Man in Arizona

a Giant was unearthed in 1891, when workmen in Crittenden, Arizona excavated a huge stone coffine that had evidently once held the body of a man 12 feet tall. A carving on the
granite case indicated tht he had six toes.

The Arizona tracks. Tracks of a barefoot human child were found, in the late 1960s, alongside some dinosaur tracks. The location was the Moenkopi Wash, near the little Colorado
River in northern Arizona

In 1984, similar tracks were found not far from the Moenkopi site. Many human tracks, dinosaur tracks, and a handprint of a child that had fallen.

More adult tracks were found in 1986.

The Arizona tracks are located in the Glen Canyon geological Group, which is part of late Triassic to early Jurassic strata and supposedly 175 to 100 million years old.

In addition to 300 tridactyle dinosaur tracks, sheep tracks, bivalve prints, large amphibian and lungfish marks have been found. Over 60 human tracks have been mapped and


In 1921, an Arkansan named Rowlands was digging in one of the many gravel pits on a line of small hillocks known as Crowley's Ridge, located two miles north of Finch. At a depth of
10 feet, Rowlands' shovel suddenly struck something large and solid. The object appeared at first to be a boulder, but excavating around it, Rowlands soon discovered that it was a
large rock-sculptured head of a man. It stood about 4 feet high, and the figure had a squared, protruding chin, small, tight-lipped mouth, a short nose, and a furrowed brow and stare
accented by two flat "buttons" of inlaid gold for eyes. Two more
gold discs ornamented the figure's ears, and a heart-shaped plug of copper was embedded in the chest. The top of the head was covered by a carved hood that draped down the
nape, and attached to a piece around the neck. Near the head, and in the same layer, Rowlands dug up a number of smaller objects: a gold ring, a small coffer made of volcanic
pumice (which does not exist in this region), and tiny carvings of men, animals, moons and stars. The head and artifacts soon became a local attraction, and the newspapers dubbed
the glowering figure "King Crowley." Several investigators authenticated the find, though they could not explain its presence in the ten-foot layer of gravel - geologically dated at
175,000 years. The head and objects were sent to the Arkansas Natural History Museum in Little Rock. The museum curators, who also examined the artifacts and had double-
checked and documented their discovery, were confident in the findings' authenticity to place them on public display. At the same time, however, some of the small carving samples
were mailed to the Smithsonian in Washington. The Smithsonian - being a far more conservative institution -described the carvings as truly "unexplained items," but could not
reconcile the antiquity of the strata in which they had been brought to light. Finally, after fifteen years of
vacillating on the subject, orthodoxy triumphed: The Smithsonian concluded that the Crowley Ridge artifacts could not be 175,000 years old as this contradicted established theory on
the age of human civilization, and therefore declared the artifacts fakes. Conforming to this prestigious conservative pronouncement, the Little Rock museum promptly took the stone
head and other objects off display, and eventually sold them to unnamed private collectors. The "King Crowley" had was shipped off to
California, and the rest of the collection was similarly scattered to the four winds. Today, the location of even a single object is unknown.


The bones of a twelve foot tall man were dug up in 1833 by a group of soldiers at Lompock Rancho,California.The skeleton was surrounded by giant weapons, and the skull featured
a double row of teeth.

In 1833, soldiers digging at Lompock Rancho, California, discovered a male skeleton 12 feet tall. The skeleton was surrounded by caved shells, stone axes, other artifacts. The
skeleton had double rows of upper and lower teeth. Unfortunately, this body was secretly buried because the local Indians became upset about the remains.

Miners in Lovelock Cave, California, discovered a very tall, red-haired mummy In 1911 This mummy eventually went to a fraternal lodge where it was used for "initiation purposes."

In 1931, skeletons from 8 ½ to 10 feet long were found in the Humbolt lake bed in California

A giant found off the California Coast on Santa Rosa Island in the 1800s was distinguished by its double rows of teeth

1851 that a businessman named Hiram de Witt had brought back with him from a trip to California a piece of auriferous quartz rock about the size of a man's fist, and that while
showing the rock to a friend, it slipped from his hand and split open upon hitting the floor. There, in the center of the quartz, they discovered a cut-iron nail, six-penny size, slightly
corroded but entirely straight, with a perfect head. the quartz was given an age of over one million years.


See Giants of California
See Red haired mummies of united states

the continent, at the same time that De Soto was blazing his famous trail, an expedition led by Coronado searched for the fabulously rich "Seven Cities of Cibola." Near Mexico's
present-day border with California and Arizona they ran into several tribes of Indian giants. Starting out from Mexico City with some three hundred Spaniards and eight hundred native
Indians, the Coronado expedition marched west to the Pacific Ocean. Then turning north-ward, they ascended the coast through regions that later became known as Sinaloa and
Sonora. While this march was underway, Hemando de Alarcon set sail with two ships up the coast, transporting the baggage and supplies for the soldiers. The original plan called for
Alarcon and the army to keep in frequent touch and to rendezvous at suitable harbors along the coast. So when the army reached the province of Senora, a force under Don Rodrigo
Maldonado set out to find the harbor and scan the horizon for Alarcon's ships. Maldonado sighted no ships, but he did return with an Indian who stood so tall as to astonish the
Spaniards. Pedro de Castaneda, who accompanied Coronado and later wrote the most complete and factual history of the expedition, records this unusual event as follows: "Don
Rodrigo Maldonado, who was captain of those who went in search of the ships, did not find them, but he brought back with him an Indian so large and tall that the best man in the
army reached only to his chest. It was said that other Indians were even taller on the coast."8 This giant evidently belonged to the Seri. This great Indian tribe occupied the island of
Tiburon and the adjacent Sonora coast on the Gulf of California. Historians testify to their tall stature.

Soon after this, while still trying to establish contact with Alarcon, Captain Melchior Diaz came across another tribe of giants. Taking twenty-five of his "most efficient men" and some
guides, Diaz struck out toward the north and west in search of the seacoast and the ships. "After going about 150 leagues," reports Castaneda, "they came to a province of
exceedingly tall and strong men--like giants " Evidently, these were the Cocopa, a Yuman tribe. According to Castaneda, these huge Indians went about mostly naked. "They . . . live,"
he adds, "in large straw cabins built underground like smoke houses, with only the straw roof above ground. They enter these at one end and come out at the other. More than a
hundred persons, old and young, sleep in one cabin. When they carry anything, they can take a load of more than three or four hundredweight on their heads. Once when our men
wished to fetch a log for the fire, and six men were unable to carry it, one of these Indians is reported to have come and raised it in his arms, put it on his head alone, and carried it
very easily."
(For a similar feat, see San Francisco Giants)

While among these Cocopas, the captain learned that ships had been seen at a point three days down toward the sea. But when Diaz' finally reached this place, he saw no sign of a
sail, even to the distant horizon. On a tree near the shore, however, his party found this written message: "Alarcon reached this place; there are letters at the foot of this tree." Diaz
dug up the letters and learned from them how long Alarcon had waited for news of the army and that he had gone back with the ships to New Spain, i.e., Mexico.9

But on his way back Alarcon changed his mind--and thus became the discoverer of the Colorado River giants. Sailing into the port of Culiacan, he came unexpectedly upon the San
Gabriel, loaded with provisions for Coronado. This chance meeting with the San Gabriel probably figured in Alarc6n's decision to resume efforts to locate the explorer's party. At any
rate, he added this third ship to his fleet and continued up the coast. They sailed the Gulf of California until they entered the shallows near the head of the gulf. After hazarding the
murky shoals there and almost losing all three ships, he and his crew reached the mouth of the Colorado River. Dropping anchor here, Alarcon and his exploratory party launched
two boats against the river's furious current. "Thus began," writes historian Herbert Eugene Bolton, "the historic first voyage by Europeans up the Colorado River among the tall
Yuman peoples who lived along its banks on either side."10

A piece up the river Alarcon and his men came upon their first settlement. About two hundred and fifty giant Cocopa warriors stood on the banks, ready to attack them. But the
captain, by making signs of peace and offering gifts, won them over. Further upstream more than a thousand giant Indians appeared with bows and arrows, but Alarcon knew they
intended them no harm because their women and children accompanied them. These Cocopas he described as "large and well formed, without being corpulent. Some have their
noses pierced, and from them hang pendants, while others wear shells. . . . All of them, big and little, wear a multi-colored sash about the waist; and tied in the middle, a round bundle
of feathers hanging down like a tail.... Their bodies are branded by fire; their hair is banged in front, but in the back it hangs to the waist." The women, meanwhile, "go about naked,
except that, tied in front and behind, they wear large bunches of feathers."11

In 1936, Tom Kenny, a resident of Plateau Valley, a town located on the western slope of the Rockies in Colorado, was excavating for a winter cellar to store vegetables, when at a
depth of 10 feet his spade hit a barrier. Clearing the covering material away, he unearthed a pavement made of tiles, each manmadeand five inches square. The tiles were laid in
mortar, the chemical composition of which lateranalysis showed was different from all materials found in the valley. The perplexing problem is that the strange pavement was found in
the same layer containing the three-toed Miocene horse - upwards of
30 million years old.



The people of this nation have a tradition, that their ancestors crossed the sea. They are the only tribe in the U.S. with which I am acquainted, who admit a foreign orgin. Until lately,
they kept a yearly sacrifice, for their safe arrival in this country from the South. From whence they came, or at what period they arrived in North America, they do not know. It is
prevailing opinion, among them, that Florida had once been inhabited by white people, who had the use of edge tools. Black Hoof (a chief) affirmed that he had often heard it spoken
of, by old people, that stumps of trees covered with earth, were frequently found, which had been cut down by edge tools.

De Vaca and the Giants
Reference:Steve Quayle

Florida Giants
In 1528, or almost ten years after Alonzo Alvarez de Pineda's discovery of giants on the Mississippi River, the ill-fated explorer Panfilo de Narvaez put three hundred men ashore at
Tampa Bay. His mission was to search the Florida mainland for its riches, while his five ships sailed just off the coast. Only Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca and three companions
survived this expedition. Afterward they crossed the North American continent from shore to shore, becoming the first white men to do so. In his history, Cabeza de Vaca mentions
some giant Florida Indians who attacked the Narvaez party. "When we came in view of Apalachen," he writes, "the Governor ordered that I should take nine cavalry with fifty infantry
and enter the town.18 Accordingly the assessor and I assailed it; and having got in, we found only women and boys there, the men being absent; however these returned to its
support, after a little time, while we were walking about, and began discharging arrows at us. They killed the horse of the assessor, and at last taking to flight, they left us.... The town
consisted of forty small houses, made low, and set up in sheltered places because of the frequent storms. The material was thatch. They were surrounded by very dense woods,
large groves and many bodies of fresh water. . . Two hours after our arrival at Apalachen, the Indians who had fled from there came in peace to us, asking for their women and
children, whom we released; but the detention of a cacique [the Indians' chief] by the Governor produced great excitement, in consequence of which they returned for battle early the
next day, and attacked us with such promptness and alacrity that they succeeded in setting fire to the houses in which we were."19

After twenty-five days, Narvaez' army departed Apalachen. But a short while later, as they attempted to cross a large lake, they came under heavy attack from many giant Indians
concealed behind trees. "Some of our men were wounded in this conflict, for whom the good armor they wore did not avail," continues Cabeza de Vaca. 'There were those this day
who swore that they had seen two red oaks, each the thickness of the lower part of the leg, pierced through from side to side by arrows; and this is not so much to be wondered at,
considering the power and skill with which the Indians are able to project them. I myself saw an arrow that had entered the butt of an elm to the depth of a span.... The Indians we had
so far seen in Florida are all archers. They go naked, are large of body, and appear at a distance like giants. They are of admirable proportions, very spare and of great activity and
strength. The bows they use are as thick as the arm, of eleven or twelve palms in length, which will discharge at two hundred paces with so great precision that they miss nothing."20


Illinois Archaeology 5 (1 and 2), 1993

Joseph Smith, Zelph's Mound, and the Armies of Zion: The Construction of American Indians from Archaeological Evidence in Illinois in the Nineteenth Century by Thomas J. Riley
Zions Camp

...They crossed the river at what was called Phillips Ferry and camped ther for a few days. It was here on the bluffs above the Illinois River about a mile downstream from Phillips
Ferry that the first reported archaeological excavations on the lower Illinoise River valleu occured on June 3, 1834 (Jelks 1984). a fascinating article by Kenneth Godfrey recently
published in BYU Studies (1989) has collected seven of the known descriptions of the events that transpired there.

The seven stories of the finding of Zeph differ significantly from one another, but the one that is the official 'History of the Church" contains most of the details that are known of the

" Tuesday the 3rd during our travels we visited several of the mounds which had been thrown up by the ancient inhabitants of this country, and this morning I went up on a high
mound near the river, accompanied by several. From this mound we could overlook the tops of the trees and view the prarie on each side of the river as far as our vision could
extend and the scenery was truly delightful.

On the top of the mound were stones which presented the appearance of three alters, one above the other, according to ancient order and the remains were strewn over the surface
of the ground. The bretheren procured a shovel and a hoe, and removing the earth to a depth of about one foot discovered the skeleton of a man, almost entire, and between his
ribs was the stone point of a Lamantish arrow which evidently produced his death. Elder Burr Riggs retained the arrow. The contemplation of the scenery around us produced
peculiar sensations in our bosoms and subsequently the vision of the past being opened to my understanding by the Spirit of the Almighty, I discovered that the person whose
skeleton we had seen was a White Lamanite, a large thickset man and a man of God. His name was Zelph. He was a warrior and cheiftain under the great Onandagus who was known
from the Eastern Sea to the Rocky mountains. The curse was taken from Zelph, or at least in part. One of his thighbones was broken by a stone flung from a sling, while in battle
years before his death. He was killed in battle, by the arrow found among his ribs, during a great struggle with the Lamanites. Elder Woodruff carried the thigh bone to Clay County"
(Smith 1902:78-80)

The excavation into the "Zelph Mound" was not an isolated occurence for ther Mormons in the nineteenth century. They were surrounded in Ohio with the remains of Earthworks,
mounds, circles, etc. On the trip to Zion, Godfrey (1989:31) notes, Joseph Smith wrote:

"The whole of our journey, in the midst of so large a company of social honest and sincere men, wandering over the plains of the Nephites, recounting occasionally the history of the
Book of Mormon, roving over the mounds, of that once beloved people and gazing upon a country the fertility, the splendoe and the goodness so indescribable, all serves to pass
away time unnoticed."

Of the very early history of the region which now embraces Lake County but little can be written. The Mound Builders had occupied this area, but little written language or oral
tradition is left to use as accounts. I did however find the following.
Excavations...have revealed the crumbling bones of a mighty race. Samuel Miller, who has resided in the county since 1835, is authority for the statement that one skeleton which he
assisted in unearthing was a trifle more than eight feet in length, the skull being correspondingly large, while many other skeletons measured at least seven feet...
Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois and History of Lake County
Edited by Newton Bateman, LL.D. and Paul Selby, A.M. (1902)
Mounds at Dunleith, Illinois
Smithsonian Escavation No.5

No. 5, the largest of the group was carefully examined. Two feet below the surface, near the apex, was a skeleton, doubtless an intrusive Indian burial... Near the original surface, 10
or 12 feet from the center, on the lower side, lying at full length on its back, was one of the largest skeletons discovered by the Bureau agents, the length as proved by actual
measurement being between 7 and 8 feet. It was clearly traceable, but crumbled to pieces immediately after removal from the hard earth in which it was encased....

Pike County
Smithsonian Escavation

The other, situated on the point of a commanding bluff, was also conical in form, 50 feet in diameter and about 8 feet high. The outer layer consisted in sandy soil, 2 feet thick, filled
with slightly decayed skeletons, probably Indians of intrusive burials. The earth of the main portion of this mound was a very fine yellowish sand which shoveled like ashes and was
everywhere, to a depth of 2 to 4 feet, as full of human skeletons as could be stowed away in it, even to two and three tiers. Among these were a number of bones not together as
skeletons, but mingled in confusion and probably from scaffolds or other localities. Excepting one, which was rather more than 7 feet long, these skeletons appeared to be of medium
size and many of them much decayed...

12th Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1890-1891
(published in 1894)
At Lawn Ridge, 20 miles north of Peoria, Illinois, in August of 1870, three men were drilling an artesian well, when - from a depth of over a hundred feet - the pump brought up a small
metal medallion to the surface. One of the workmen, Jacob W. Moffit, from Chillicothe, was the first to discover it in the drill residue. A noted scholar of the time, Professor Alexander
Winchell, reported in his book Sparks From a Geologist's Hammer, that he received from another eye-witness, W.H. Wilmot, a detailed statement, dated December 4, 1871, of the
deposits and depths of materials made during the boring, and the position where the metal "coin" was uncovered. The stratification took this form: Soil - 3 feet; yellow clay - 17 feet;
blue clay - 44 feet; dark vegetable matter - 4 feet; hard purplish clay - 18 feet; bright green clay - 8 feet; mottled clay - 18 feet; paleosol (ancient soils) - 2 feet; coin location; yellowish
clay - 1 foot; sand, clay and water - 11 feet. The strange "coin-medallion" was composed of an unidentified copper alloy, about the size and thickness of a U.S. quarter of that period.
It was remarkably uniform in thickness, round, and the edges appeared to have been cut. Researcher William E. Dubois, who presented his investigation of the medallion to the
American Philosophical Society, was convinced that the object had in fact passed through a rolling mill, the edges showed "further evidence of the machine shop." Despite its
"modern characteristics", however, Dubois plainly saw that, upon the object, "the tooth of time is plainly visible."
Both sides of the medallion were marked with artwork and hieroglyphs, but these had not been metalengraved or stamped. Rather, the figures had somehow been etched in acid, to a
remarkable degree of intricacy. One side showed the figure of a woman wearing a crown or headdress; her left arm is raised as if in benediction, and her right arm holds a small child,
also crowned. The woman appears to be speaking. On the opposite side is another central figure, that looks like a crouching animal: it has long, pointed ears, large eyes and mouth,
claw-like arms, and a long tail frayed at the very end. Below and to
the left of it is another animal, which bears a strong resemblance to a horse. Around the outer edges of both sides of the coin are undecipherable glyphs - they are of very definite
character, and show all the signs of a form of alphabetic writing.
As a sidelight, the enigmatic coin was not the only item that came from deep levels in Illinois. In 1851, in Whiteside County, another well-drilling bit brought up from a sand stratum 120
feet deep two copper artifacts: What appears to be a hook, and a ring. Their age is thought to be the same as that of the coin - about 150,000 years old.


1879, some Indiana archaeologists dug into an ancient burial mound at Brewersville, Indiana, and unearthed a human skeleton that measured nine feet eight inches in length. A mica
necklace still hung around the giant's neck.
The bones, which were stored in a grain mill, were swept away in the 1937 flood.26

In 1925, several amateurs digging in an Indian mound at Walkerton, Indiana, uncovered the skeletons of eight very ancient humans measuring in height from eight to almost nine
feet. All eight giants had been buried in substantial copper armor.
Clay Township - John Stucky, Mr. Osborn and a few others were digging a grave on top of a mound near Siple's and reaching the depth of about three feet came upon the remains of
three persons. The first was a huge being, the lower maxillary being large enough to pass over that of a living person, flesh and all. Mr. Stucky further said that the femur bone was
several inches longer than that of an ordinary man
Legend:  Mrs. Alice Taylor recorded an interesting story of Pike County as follows: "My mother, Clarissa Brenton Laws' grandfather was George
Parker, who died at an early age in Pike County. He was buried in a cemetery on a knob about three miles below Petersburg Indiana. When they thought the grave was dug, one of
the men sounded his pick down and it sounded hollow; so they dug some more and found a metal casket with a skeleton between eight and nine feet long, with red hair and teeth
filled with gold.  This was an account of a burial of the great grandfather of Mrs. Taylor and she was born in 1856.



Kossuth: October was a month of some excitement in scientific circles as seven strange and gigantic mummies were discovered just outside of Kossuth Center. Marvin Rainwater, a
local farmer, had been digging a new well on his property and struck a deposit of very hard stone about nine feet below the topsoil. In attempting to dig it out, he found that it was
more than four feet wide in every direction. Removing it would be a terrific chore. He considered the possibility that this was a layer of bedrock, but that would certainly be odd that
close to the surface. Further, being somewhat familiar with geologic deposits, he knew that the stone was not the familiar limestone for which such Eastern Iowa areas like Stone City
are famous. This was something else entirely. Upon close inspection Rainwater also saw that the stone was not as rough as might be expected in a natural formation, but was in fact
smooth and polished. Now very curious as to the nature of the find, he called several friends from surrounding farms and they began an excavation. They discovered that it was not a
single stone, but rather one of at least several irregularly cut slabs stretching out over a wide area, yet fitted so tightly together that not even a knife blade could be put between
them. Each slab measured roughly 8'x10', and when struck with a sledge seemed to ring with a hollowness that might indicate this was not a floor but the outside portion of a ceiling.
Rainwater wondered if he had not stumbled upon some sort of buried stone structure on his property. Believing that there might be a way to parlay living other than farming if he
played his cards right, Mr. Rainwater contacted Georg Von Podebrad College, who in turn dispatched a team of archeologists, anthropologists, and geologists to the site. The
researchers were delighted with the anomalies presented them. Firstly, the stone was not at all native to Iowa, but was in fact basalt-a hard, dense volcanic rock composed of
plagioclase, augite, and magnetite. The type of stone used by the Egyptians to build their massive monuments. The depth of the slabs indicated that they had been there for a very
long time, predating the advent of the kind of modern transportation and heavy machinery needed to bring such a large quantity of foreign stone to Iowa, and quite probably the slabs
had been laid down before the last glacial age. It is impossible to gauge with any certainty just how long they had been there. After the soil covering the slabs had been entirely
removed, the area covered by the stones was a perfect square measuring 188 feet on each side. Digging around the perimeter revealed that Rainwater had been correct, the
structure did go deeper into the ground. The cyclopean structure was revealed to be a pyramid similar in shape to one located at Marietta, Ohio, although those mounds and
monuments erected by the prehistoric Indians were made of sun dried brick mixed with rushes. This technique, too, is curiously similar to the Egyptian technique of brick making with
straw and mud. It took many months, but the entire structure was finally exposed, and on the eastern side was found a massive filled in archway with strong resemblance to those of
ancient Greece. At the bottom of the arch was a smaller arch, measuring only 6' to the capstone. This too had been filled in and blocked off. With genuine awe and some hesitancy
the scientists of the Rainwater Site began the work of opening the smaller entryway, wondering what light from the first torch penetrated the gloom of the ancient structure, Albert
Grosslockner gasped at what he thought were seven huge and exquisitely detailed statues seated in a ring around a very large and deep fire pit. Moving closer, he realized that the
figures were not carved of stone, but were in fact the mummified remains of some giant humanoid race.

Could what they found be in fact a prehistoric burial vault for some pre-human creatures or was it a prison designed to hold some freakish aberration of nature?
The figures, were
each fully ten feet tall even when measured seated in their cross-legged positions. They all faced into the circle with arms folded across their legs.
Upon close examination it was seen
that they had
double rows of teeth in their upper and lower jaws. The foreheads were unusually low and sloping, with exceedingly prominent brows. The skin of the mysterious giants
was wrinkled and tough, as though tanned, and
the hair of each of them was distinctly red in color. Their faces, still very expressive even in death, taunted the scientists with their
silence. Who, or what, were these creatures, how had they come to be locked in this stone room, and where had the stone itself come from originally? After careful excavation of the
site, the bodies were removed for x-ray and autopsy examination. The excitement over the find was far in excess of the "Gypsum Man" find in Iowa so many years before-a hoax from
which the Putnam Museum of Davenport had never fully recovered from. These giants were very real. The medical examinations demonstrated that there was definite skeletal
structure, that they were organic creatures who had once been very much alive. One explanation for the mummies might lie in the legends of the Paiute Indians who tell of a race of
red-haired giants who were their mortal enemies centuries ago. They were called the Si-Te-Cahs, driven from Nevada by a previously unheard of alliance of tribes. Did the Si-Te-
Cahs retreat from the west to Iowa? Was the stone structure here before and simply co-opted by the giants? No one may ever know, however it is interesting to note that among the
Indian relics held in the Kossuth County chapter of the State Historical Society are three robes made entirely from very long strands of red hair. We await DNA comparisons of
samples taken from the mummies and the robes to determine a connection. In the mean-time, Marvin Rainwater has had his farm purchased by interested parties in Hopkins Grove
for an undisclosed sum, and is quite happily no longer toiling in his fields or digging wells.  
Click here for Photos and More Details


For three miles the Ohio River makes a bend between Jeffersonville, Ind., and Louisville, Ky., and rushes westward with a terrific roar. Inspired by a fall of about 25 feet. In the center
of the cataract is what has long been known as Corn Island. On the Indiana side the big eddy whirls past Wave Rock, the graveyard of many proud steamboat. In low water the place
is dotted with the dismantled hulks. And just below the whirlpool lies the Kelly property. There is a big spring bubbling out of the side of the path that leads down to the rocky shore
that is said to have been dug by Yellow Hair. To the right of it, going up the bank, is a graveyard, where hundreds of prehistoric people lie buried, and to the left is the Kelly farm, on
the river edge of which are 50 tombs of the same mysterious people. The school history of Kentucky says when the first white settlers arrived at Louisville they found piles of human
skeletons on Corn Island and some are found there now. To the early settlers it appeared that there had been a great battle fought and that one tribe had been entirely wiped out.  
On the banks of the falls to this day are found thousands of Indian arrows and spear heads, with an occasional battle ax, and once a stone owl was found that had probably been
fashioned by one of the prehistoric people. This description represents the concrete facts and is the corroborative evidence of the weird tale told by Mrs. Kelly and her ancestors tell  
in their mystic chant of the vanishing of a strange race of people: “When I was a wee bit of a girl,” said Mrs. Kelly, “my mother sang me to sleep with the words of this song. It was a
sort of a chant in the Indian tongue, and I do not remember it all. Translated so you will understand it, it was to the effect that a white people lived here on the falls and that they were
mighty. A tall Chief with yellow hair ruled over them and four ages they fought off the red men and held the fisheries of the falls and the hunting grounds for their own. The sun was
the god they worshipped, and he appeared to have blessed them with peace and plenty. Yellow Hair our people called the Chief, who was a giant. The Chiefs or Kings must have
maintained the great stature by intermarrying in the royal family, probably killing all the females except just enough to perpetuate, the race. My mother thought they saved the best
developed girls for the wives of the Chief in order to perpetuate the governing race. I did not ask her why she formed this opinion, and it may have been part of the legend. But our
people had long viewed the land from afar and they determined to possess it. The Chief at that time was Hawk Wing, the line through which I come. He sent spies to make overtures
to the strange white people and they visited Yellow hair and told him the Shawnee wanted to share with them the fisheries and the hunting grounds. Yellow Hair listened to their
statements and then told them that there was just enough for the white people and that he and his people preferred to live by themselves. Then the Ambassadors of the Shawnee
said that if the white people would not submit peacefully to having then fir neighbors they would slay them and take their possessions. At this Yellow Hair laughed disdainfully and said
the sun god would destroy his enemies with fire from heaven and that every man who took part in such a bloody and unprovoked massacre would die a violent death and that the
curse would have the effect as long as one of the offending race remained on earth.

But Hawk Wing had faith in the Great Spirit, that he and his tribe worshipped, and he collected his warriors and set out for the home of Yellow Hair. In some way, the scouts of Yellow
learned of there near approach, and he and his people leaped into their canoes and went to Corn Island. The dangerous whirlpools and the treacherous eddies, with which they were
familiar, they thought would protect them from the less skilled Shawnee. But they did not know Hawk Wing. He and his braves had been accustomed to the water from infancy and
they were almost as much at home in the torrent as Yellow Hair and his people. So that night while Yellow Hair was peacefully sleeping in fancied security. Hawk Wing and his braves
were making canoes and getting ready for battle. Just as the sun was breaking through the murky sky of the east the canoes of Hawk Wing reached the shores of the island. Yellow
Hair and his people were awakening from sleep and were falling on their knees in prayer to their sun god. They were in this position when the yells of my people burst upon them.
Many were slain as they knelt, but Yellow Hair was a warrior, and though taken by surprise, he seized his battle-ax and valiantly defended his subjects. With his single-hand he slew
more than a score of our people. Then when he was weary from fighting Hawk Wing confronted him. Behind Yellow Hair were his wives and children kneeling in prayer and in front of
him were Hawk Wing and his warriors. The two chieftains sprang at each other with their battle-axes. My ancestor was used to war and familiar with all the tricks. As a result, after a
terrible encounter, during which both were covered with wounds, Yellow Hair sank exhausted and hawk Wing’s battle ax was buried in his brain.
“Maddened by the conflict, Hawk Wing turned upon the kneeling women and children and slew them. He and his men kept up the slaughter until not one of the white race remained.
Every single one of them had been killed and the scalp lock of Yellow Hair dangled at the belt of Hawk Wing. Till his death he kept it and it was buried with him.
“Then the Shawnee took possession of the houses and lands of the vanquished people.  On the island in the falls is a small cave, which was once known as ‘Yellow Hair’s Bath,’ but
which is now always referred to as the Crystal Bath,’ It is said Yellow Hair bathed in this every day after he prayed to the sun. The cave is of solid stone and a small stream of water
trickles through the top, making a natural, shower bath, where the fisherman to this day often bathes.“Finally, the last of the habitations of the strange people was torn down and 300
years later, when General Clark came here and found Black Hawk in possession, nothing remained save the bones of the murdered people on the island. (From the blog of Fritz
Zimmerman) Shawnee legends say that during low water their warriors went to Sandy Island and slaughtered the remaining White mound builders

In 1885, Professor J.F. Brown of Berea College, Kentucky was called upon to examine a puzzling find, made 16 miles east of the town of Berea, on Big Hill in Rock Castle County, one
of the spurs of the Cumberland Plateau. Near the summit, an old wagon trail cut through a stratum of carboniferous limestone, and removal of earth to widen the trail into a road had
exposed a new section of this stratum. As E.A. Allen reported in the American Antiquarian, volume 7, page 39, preserved in the layer were the fossilized impressions of several
creatures. What mystified those who witnessed the remains was that among these tracks were two well-preserved prints of a human being. They were described as "good-sized, toes
well spread, and very distinctly marked." It was not until 1930 that further and more detailed investigations were performed, this time by Dr.
Wilbur Greely Burroughs, head of the geology department at Berea College. Dr. Burroughs discovered a total of twelve 9 1/2-inch mantracks and portions of others, and confirmed
that they had indeed been  impressed upon gray Pottsville sandstone dating from the Upper Pennsylvanian period -well over 300 million years old.

In 1965, a skeleton measuring 8 feet 9 inches was found buried under a rock ledge along the Holly Creek in east-central Kentucky

Evidence found in the tunnel systems of Mammoth Cave indicate that there was a pre-existing race of giant sized humans with red haired that lived in this area.

Brad and Mary Sutherland investigate the ancient ruins of Kentucky

Click here to read the story

Click here to listen to audio on my discoveries concerning this race of people.

Click here to read the latest discoveries of an ancient race found in the caves of Kentucky

Recessive Genes of the Ancient Ones - Six Fingers
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According to Paiute Indian oral legends, a tribe called the
Si-Te-Cah were a hostile tribe of tall red-haired giants that
once occupied the area in the distant past. Amazingly, 9,400
year old Mummified remains were indeed found in a cave in
Nevada, though scientific study is NOT allowed on the
remains for political reasons. That being said, Sarah
Winnemucca Hopkins, a prominent female Native Ame
rican activist, educator, and daughter of Paiute Chief
Winnemucca, related many stories passed down in her tribe,
first hand, about the Si-Te-Cah in her book Life Among the
Paiutes, published in 1883. "My people say that the tribe we
exterminated had reddish hair. I have some of their hair,
which has been handed down from father to son. I have a
dress which has been in our family a great many years,
trimmed with the reddish hair. I am going to wear it some time
when I lecture. It is called a mourning dress, and no one has
such a dress but my family."