Was There A Prehistoric Civilization in Antartica?

http://english.pravda.ru/culture/2002/12/02/40228.html

After WW II, scientists started to pay attention to the issue of
supposedly once-existing civilization in Antarctica. The hypothesis
is confirmed by some medieval maps and researches of paleogeologists
and glaciologists.

In January 1820, a lieutenant of Russian Empire Fleet, Mikhail Lazarev,
discovered this  new continent. In the beginning of 20th century, a
Russian encyclopedia, while measuring the South Pole, reported back that it
had been insufficiently explored.

Istanbul's  National Museum director, Khalil
Edkhem , while sorting out the library of Byzantine emperors in the old
sultan palace, found an  ancient map made on gazelle skin.  On
this map was the West and South African shores AND  the northern
shore of Antarctica. Khalil could not believe his own eyes! The shore
of the Queen Mod Land, to the south from 70th parallel was FREE OF ICE!
The ancient cartographer  marked a mountain chain there. The
name of the cartographer was known: the admiral of the Ottoman Empire
fleet, Piri Reis, who lived in the first half of 16th century.
The map authenticity was without doubt. Some graphology examinations
of the notes on the margin confirmed they belonged to the admiral.

In 1949, the united expedition of Britain and Sweden carried out an
intensive seismic prospecting of the South Pole Continent through the
ice cap region. According to the Commander of 8th Technical Investigation
Squadron of the US Armed Force Strategic Command, Colonel Harold
Olmayer ,from July 6, 1960, "geographical details of the bottom part
of the map (the Antarctica shore) correspond with the results of the
seismic prospecting. We cannot correlate these data with the supposed
level of geography in 1513."

In his notes on the map margin, made in the early 16th century, Piri
Reis explained he was not responsible for the cartography and that
the map was based on some earlier sources. Some of these "earlier
sources" belong to his contemporaries (for example, to Christopher
Columbus), while others could be dated  4th century B. C.
Not any
later, because one of these sources belonged to Alexander of
Macedonia, who lived namely in this epoch.

Of course, professional historians specializing in ancient history
could say: "This is only one more operational hypothesis. And what
about documentary and, which is desirable, trust-worthy sources? The
opinion of the Turkish admiral, notes on the margin… You know, it is
too disputable!"

In  late 1959,  Professor of Keene College in New Hampshire,
the late Charles H. Hapgood, found in the  Washington Congress
Library a map made up by Orontheus Phynius in 1531. Orontheus Phynius
pictured Antarctica with mountains and rivers,
without glaciers. The
relief of the continent central part was not marked, which, according
to Hapgood, could mean that there had been ice caps in that area.

In the early 1960s, the map of Phynius was studied by the
Massachusetts Technology Institute doctor Richard Stratchen together
with Hapgood. Both scientists concluded that Phynius had really
pictured the Antarctica shores
free of ice. The shore counters and
characteristic features of the relief are really close to the
information about the covered with ice surface of the continent,
which was mapped in 1958 by specialists from different countries.

Apropos, Gerard Cremer, known in the world as Mercator, also trusted
the Orontheus evidence. He included the Phynius map into his atlas. Mercator
had made several maps. One interesting feature in his 1569 map is that the
west shore of South America is pictured less accurately, than in the
earlier map of Mercator from 1538. The reasons of this contradiction
are as follows: While working at the earlier map, the cartographer of
16th century proceeded from ancient sources which were not kept till
our time, and while working at the later map, he proceeded from
observations of first Spanish investigators of South America. The
mistake of Gerard Mercator could be excused. In 16th century, there
were no precise methods to measure longitude: as a rule, the error
could have made hundreds of kilometres!

And, finally, Philippe Boiche, full member of French Academy of
Science. In 1737, he published his map of Antarctica. Boiche
presented the precise Antarctica picture of the time when the
continent was free of ice. In his map, the under-ice topography of
the continent is presented about which our civilization (which is
supposed to be born not earlier than in fourth millenium B. C.) had
no clear idea till 1958. Moreover, basing on now-lost sources, the
French academician pictured in the middle of the South Pole continent
a water space dividing it in two sub-continents which were situated
to the west and to the east from the line, where now Trans-Antarctic
Mountains are marked. According to the investigation in the framework
of International Geophysical Year (1958), Antarctic which is pictured
as one continent in up-to-date maps is in fact an archipelago of big
islands covered with 1.5-kilometre ice.

Summing up

Medieval maps show Antarctica without ice cap or partially covered
with ice. The precision of the 16th century cartographer estimations
is very high and even surprising as for some positions. Their data
surpasses technical possibilities even of the late Middle Ages (for
example, determination of the modern relief longitude to within one
minute). This level of engineering was reached by humankind at least
in the late 18th century, while in some questions – even in the 20th.
B. Scientists cannot comment on the very high scientific level of
medieval cartography. Information about almost 2000-year-old
primary sources are supposed to be not well-founded. While the
position of today's cartographers based upon scientific estimations
in the field of natural history is supposed to be incompetent.
C. Orthodox geology agrees with such statement of the question, while
saying the age of the Antarctica ice cap could be estimated at least
as 25 million of years. However, recently this estimation was reduced
to 6 million. Though, even such amendment has already got an academic
character.

Therefore, we should notice following feature of the Reis map: the
shore of the continent was free of ice. In the Phynius map made in 18
years after the Reis map, there is an ice cap around South Pole
within the limits of 80th and somewhere of 75th parallel. 200 years
later, academician Boiche pictured Antarctica without glaciers.
The conclusion is obvious: we can see the process of glaciation of
the southern continent.

In 1949, the admiral Baird expedition carried boring of Ross Sea in
three spots, where Orontheus Phynius marked river-beds. In the cuts,
fine-grained layers were found, obviously brought to the sea with
rivers, whose sources situated in temperate latitudes (i.e. free of
glaciers).

While using nuclear dating method of doctor U. Oury from Karnegy
Institute in Washington, scientists found out precisely that the
Antarctica rivers which were sources of fine-dyspersated deposits
were flowing, as shown in the Phynius map, about 6,000 years ago. In
about 4000 year B. C., sediments of glacial type started to
accumulate on the bottom of Ross Sea. Kernels show that before it,
there was a long warm period.

Therefore, the maps of Reis, Phynius, Mercator present Antarctica of
the time, when ancient Egyptian and Shumer civilizations were
newborn. This point of view is excluded by almost all professional
historians and could be regarded as an operating hypothesis which
cannot be verified. Any historian would say that there were no
civilization of the kind in the late 5th millenium B. C. While
according to doctor Jacob Hock from Illinois University, the deposits
in-question could be 6 to 12 thousand years old. Therefore, this
question should be considered by paleontologists whose activity is
out of the framework of historic science.

In September 1991, US and Egyptian archaeologists discovered at a
distance of 13 km from Nile River, in Abidos, 12 big boats which
belonged to Pharaohs of First Dynasty. The age of the boats is about
5,000 years. They are supposed to be the most ancient vessels in the
world, the leader of the expedition, D. O'Connor from Pennsylvania
University says. So far, the find is estimated to be aimed for
religious rites.

According to Herodotus, ancient Egyptians had observed stars within
more than 10,000 years. This statement of the "father of history" is
supposed to be esoteric and, therefore, not true. Though, land
nations seldom born astronomers. The fact that ancient Egyptians were
interested in astronomy may witness that they inherited some
knowledge from unknown civilization of navigators.

Apropos, workers of US technical intelligence determined the
projection centre of the Piri Reis map whose data belongs to 4000
year B. C. The projection centre was supposedly situated near to
today's Cairo. At that time, according to most of historians, all
then-existing nations were on a very low level of development.

Further Conclusions

A. Between 5th and 10th milleniums B. C., there was a civilization on
Earth which possessed great knowledge in the field of navigation,
cartography, and astronomy, which was not lower than that one from
18th century.

B. This civilization preceded our civilization and it was not an
extraterrestrial one. Its age could be several thousands years, while
its situation was probably in the northern shore of the most southern
continent, or archipelago – Antarctica, where there was a temperate
climate. Later, this civilization may have resettled to the north-
east of Africa.

The reason of the civilization death is the glaciation of Antarctica –
the process which started not earlier than in 10th millenium B. C.
It cannot be excluded that there were also large-scale floods, which
were too regular and cause long-term local deluges (this is confirmed
by archaeologists). These disasters could have destroy most of the
objects of the civilization material culture. While some fragments
could be found in the future under the thickness of ice. Though, it
could be assumed that the survivors from Antarctica kept and handed
over some knowledge to ancient Egyptians and probably to the Shumer.
So, after some expanded archaeologist investigation which at long
last reaches Antarctica, human kind could be surprised with its
results.
This information was gathered from
www.factor-online.com
Translated by Vera Solovieva
Mary Sutherland is the author of the following books
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  • Revelations: Truths Revealed
  • In Search of Ancient Man: Lost in Time
  • The Red Haired Giants
  • Haunted Burlington Wisconsin

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