Symmes
Hollow Earth Explorer

" It would not be a European scientist who first brought
international
attention to the idea of a world within the earth. That distinction
would
go instead to a hot tempered American, a career soldier and man of
action from the state of New Jersey.

The son of a judge, John Cleeves Symmes was born in 1780 and named
for an uncle who had served in the American Revolution. His was hardly
the cloistered life of a scholar, although he enjoyed a solid early
education and was intensely interested in the natural sciences. In
1802,
at the age of twenty-two, he entered the United States Army as an
ensign.

>From then on, Symmes life was nomadic and turbulent. In 1807, he
insisted on fighting a duel with a fellow officer who had suggested
that
Symmes was not a gentleman. Both men were shot-Symmes in the wrist
and his opponent in the thigh-and suffered from their wounds for the
rest of their lives, during which they became good friends. Symmes
fought courageously against the British in the war of 1812, once
leading
his troops in storming a British artillery battery and spiking an
enemy
cannon with his own hands.

Symmes left the army in 1816 and established a trading post at St.
Louis. There, with little else on his hands to do, he indulged in his
lifelong passion for reading about the natural sciences. Symmes was
especially fascinated by speculation about the information of the
earth,
and he began to elaborate with growing enthusiasts and conviction on a
theory that may have occurred to him years before. By the year 1818
Symmes was ready to share his ideas on an international lecture. He
did
so in a most spectacular manner. In a letter addressed "To All the
World" and sent politicians, publications, learned societies, and
heads of
state throughout Europe and America, he wrote: "I declare the earth is
hollow, and inhabital within; containing a number of solid concentric
spheres, one within the other, and that it is open at the poles or 16
degrees; I pledge my life, he continued, "in support of this truth,
and am
ready to explore the hollow, if the world will support and aid me in
the
undertaking."

Symmes assured his readers that he would prove his case in greater
detail with a subsequent publication. For skeptics, he included a
character reference and a testimonial to his sanity signed by local
physicians and businessman. That Symmes asked for "one hundred brave
men companions, well equipped, to start from Siberia in the fall
season,
with reindeer, and sleighs, on the ice of the frozen sea; I engage we
find warm and rich land, stocked with thrifty vegetables and animals
if
not men, on reaching one degree northward of latitude 82; we will
return in the succeeding spring."

But instead of the support and aid Symmes had requested, the public
responded with hoots of derisive laughter. He told his theory, and his
audacity were ridiculed in newspapers and scientific journals the
world
over.

Undeterred, Symmes launched a vigorous campaign newspaper articles,
more open letters, and countless lectures around the country. Over and
over her argued that a mass of spinning, unformed matter-such as the
earth once was-could not have organized itself into a solid sphere.
Centrifugal force throws rotating matter away from the axis of
rotation;
gravity pulls it inward. When the forces balance, he said, the result
is a
belt of material with the densest matter outermost and the axis open.
In
this way, Symmes claimed, the materials of the earth were organized as
concentric, hollow spheres open at the poles.

Symmes marshaled all kinds of evidence, from the astronomical to the
common place, to support his scheme. Look at the concentric rings of
Saturn, the polar caps of Mars, he said; look how a cup of said,
rotated,
will sort itself into concentric circles according to its density. He
appealed to religion: Nature, he pointed out, was a great economist of
matter, having opted wherever feasible for hollow construction-hollow
bones, stalks, quills and hairs. Furthermore, he said, God would not
have
created a vast inner world only to have it barren and empty. Some how
Symmes reasoned from the general to the particular and developed
specific dimensions for the multiple earths he envisioned. The known
world, the outermost of five, he said, has an opening 4,000 miles
across
at the north pole and another, 6,000 miles in diameter, at the South.
One could walk into these openings, for they are inclined into the
earth's
thousand-mile-thick crust at a gentle angle. Anyone who did so would
find within a gentle, sheltered land warmed by the indirect rays of
the
sun shining in at the polar portholes.

Symmes spoke relentlessly to all who would listen to him, poring out
great, disorganized jumbles of his thought. His fervent speeches drew
large crowds of the curious but, for the most part, elicited only
amusement or mild interest instead of cash for his arctic expedition.
He
did make a few converts, however-among whom the most significant
were an Ohio newspaper editor named Jeremiah N. Reynolds, who began
giving his own lectures in support of Symmes's theories, and a wealthy
Ohioan named James McBride. It may well have been McBride who
requested Kentucky Senator Richard M. Johnson-who later served as
vice president in the administration of Martin Van Buren-to introduce
in
Congress a petition for funding the proposed expedition. It was
tabled.
McBride then compiled a book summarizing, in a more concise and
logical
fashion than Symmes ever did, the theory of concentric spheres (which
was more popularly and rudely referred to as Theory of Symmes's Hole).
But it was all for nothing. The strain of ten years of vigorous
proselytizing broke Symmes's health, and he died in 1829 without
seeing
his theory accepted or his expedition mounted.

Symmes had clearly hoped that his quest would bring him monumental
renown. Indeed using the pen name of Captain Adam Seaborn, he
published in 1820 a fictional account of a voyage to the earth's
interior,
entitled Symzonia; Voyage of Discovery, in which he spelled out the
class of glory he hoped would be his. As Captain Seaborn prepares to
land at a subterranean utopia peopled with gentle, fair skin beings,
he
muses: "I was about to secure to my name a conspicuous and
imperishable place on the tablets of History, and a niche of the first
order in the temple of fame....The voyage of Columbus was but an
excursion on a fish pond, and his discoveries, compared with mine,
were
but trifles."

That of course was not the way the world saw it, and after his death
Symmes's vision of a hollow earth was nearly forgotten. The polar
expedition he had so long espoused, however was another matter.

In fact, Congress authorized such a voyage in 1828, the year before
Symmes died. This was impart the result of vigorous lobbying by
Jeremiah Reynolds, who instead of appealing to scientific curiosity
stressed the trade to be opened and territory to be claimed. The idea
gained support of president John Quincy Adams but not of Andrew
Jackson, who succeeded Adams as president in 1829. The expedition
would not sail for another decade.

Meanwhile, the impatient Reynolds joined a sealing and exploring
expedition to the South Seas aboard the Annawan. (A magazine story
that he wrote on his return-Mocha Dick, or The White Whale of the
Pacific-may have been the inspiration for Herman Melville's
masterpiece
Moby Dick, published twelve years later.) On his return, Renewed
earlier
calls to sealers and whalers to add their voices to the clamor for an
expedition, now proposed to Antarctica.

In an 1836 speech given in the U.S. Capitol's Hall of Representatives,
Reynold's conjured a stirring vision of American ships casting anchor
at
the South Pole-"that point where all the meridians terminate where our
eagle and star spangled banner may be unfurled and planted, and left
to
wave our axis of the earth itself!" If he still believed in Symmes
held that
point, Reynolds kept it to himself.

Swayed by such patriotic fervor appeals to the whalers and other
commercial interests. Congress then approved the expedition and
provided $300,000.00 for it. However, two years dragged by before it
actually departed. By that time, the impassioned Reynolds had so
roundly denounced the Secretary of Navy for dawdling that Reynolds's
be immediately struck from the expedition roster when the ship finally
sailed in 1838.

Named for its commander, Navy Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, the four-year
Wilkes expedition-the first to team civil engineers and scientists
with
naval crews-did make important discoveries, but not those that Symmes
had so fondly hoped, no charting of a polar opening, the voyagers
returned maps of thousands of miles of antarctic coastline, having
that
this little known landmass is in fact big enough to be the earth's
seventh
continent.

(Photo-In Poe's "MS. Found in a Bottle," a whirlwind drags a ship into
the earth through the South Pole)

Like Symmes before him, Reynold's found that the tangible rewards for
his devotion were slim. An expedition botanist who discovered a new
genus of ivy in Samoa on the southward journey named it Reynoldsia in
honor of Reynolds's "unflagging zeal." And Reynolds apparently wielded
considerable influence over the fevered mind of one of America's
greatest authors, Edger Allan Poe. In the short story "MS Found in a
Bottle" and his novel The Narrative of Arthur Gorden Pym of Nantucket,
Poe describes doomed voyages that end with ships being sucked into a
watery abyss at the South Pole-ideas founded on the hollow-earth
writings of Reynolds. Although the two probably never met, Poe was
calling Reynold's name when he died in a Baltimore hospital in 1849. "
Source: allplanets-hollow@yahoogroups.com
From: "deandddd"
------------------------------------------------------------
Are Planets Hollow?

Why wouldn't they be? Think about their round shapes. It was centrifugal force that sculpted them. That force was greater at the equators, so they all bulge at the equators. Going towards the poles, that force would
have progressively diminished, such that the outline
of the planets would have gradually inclined inwards until, at the poles, there would have been no curvature. The crust at the poles would be very thin because the centrifugal force at the poles would have been very
little; the matter there would have slid down and concentrated itself at equator and reinforced the crust there.

As the outer crust cooled, any pent up force within the planet would have most likely expressed itself by blowing out through the axial (polar) points and would have formed openings. ( Our planet has polar openings )
This seems to be what is indicated by the huge, crater-like depressions at the tops of the planets which we can observe. The outer rim or collar of such openings could be a tell-tale sign of such an outburst from the
interior which happened long, long ago during the formative stages.

What hollow earth proponents are saying is that the same force which sculpted the outer shape of the planet, that centrifugal force, would have had to have opened up a cavity within the planet, too. The force could
not have had such a dramatic impact on the exterior shape and curve of the planet, with no cavity opening up at the core. Because the centrigfugal force was not evenly distributed, the interior cavity would have the
shape of a football or rugby ball, with the points edging towards the poles.

The cavity can't have a liquid interior. If it had, the tidal force exerted by the Moon would have induced the liquid interior to bust through any crust just as soon as such crust could have formed by
cooling.

And it can't be full of molten lava because the Earth has a magnetic field. The magnetic fields touch the poles and the Earth serves as a conductor to close the circuit. If the inner core of the Earth had the temperatures
which the Molten Core Theory stipulates that it does, then any magnetic properties would be lost as heat destroys magnetism. And it doesn't take too much heat- this point is called the Curie Point. So the existence of
the Earth's magnetic field indicates that the core is not molten nor hot
Source:
allplanets-hollow@yahoogroups.com
From: "Dean"
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