THE AGE OF THE PATRIARCHS
Continued from Map 3

As late as  Pasteur's time,  the French Academy of Sciences rejected the notion that meteorites had any extraterrestrial origins or
that stones did or could fall from the skies. How time has changed our thinking on such notions - for some.

In October, 1940, Velikovsky noticed that the Book of Joshua describes a destructive shower of meteorites occurring before the sun
"stood still," in the sky. He believed the authors of this time  recorded a cosmic disturbance that must have shaken the entire Earth
and might have been related to the upheavals approximately 50 years earlier during the Exodus. A survey of other sources around
the world  and the discovery of the Ipuwer Papyrus convinced Velikovsky that a global cataclysm had indeed overtaken the Earth,
and that Venus played a decisive role in that cataclysm.

He was convinced that Planet Earth had suffered natural catastophes on a global scale, both during and before mankind's recorded
history. These
catastophes which occurred within the memory of mankind are recorded in the myths, legends and written history of all cultures and
civilisations on the globe. Velikovsky pointed to striking concordances in the accounts of many cultures, and proposed that they
referred to the same real events, all couched in the individual religious and cultural viewpoints of their authors. He put forward the
psychoanalytic idea of "Cultural Amnesia" as a mechanism whereby these literal records came to be regarded as mere myths and
legends.

He believed that the  cause of these natural catastophes were close-encounters between the Earth and other bodies with the solar
system - not least what were now the planets Saturn, Jupiter, Venus and Mars, these bodies having moved upon different orbits
within human memory.
Velikovsky proposed that electromagnetic forces played a much greater role than acknowledged in a purely Newtonian (gravitation-
only) model.

Velikovsky also  argued with the scientific world that the conventional chronology of the Near East and classical world, based upon
Egyptian Sothic dating and the king lists of Manetho, was wholly flawed. This was the reason for the apparent absence of correlation
between the Biblical record and those of neighbouring cultures, and also the cause of the enigmatic "dark ages" in Greece and
elsewhere. Velikovsky shifted several chronlogies and dynasties from the Egyptian Old Kingdom to Ptolomeic times by centuries (a
scheme he called the Revised Chronology), placing the Exodus contemporary with the fall of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. He
proposed numerous other synchonisms stretching up to the time of Alexander the Great. He argued that these eliminate phantom
"dark ages", and vindicated the Bibical and Herodotus' accounts of history.


Velikovsky suggested that Earth had once been a satellite of a "proto-Saturn" body, before its current Solar orbit.
That the Deluge (Noah's Flood) had been caused by proto-Saturn entering a nova state, and ejecting much of its mass into space.
He also suggested that the planet  Mercury was involved in the Tower of Babel catastrophe and that Jupiter had been the culprit for
the catastrophe which saw the destruction of the Cities of the Plain (Sodom and Gomorrah)
Periodic close contacts with a cometary Venus (which had been ejected from Jupiter) had caused the Exodus events , which he
believed to have been at 1500BC  and Joshua's subsequent "sun standing still" incident.  He also felt that the periodic close  
contacts with Mars had caused havoc in the 8th and 7th centuries BC.

Within  his lifetime, while  he continued to research and expand upon the details of his ideas, he only released selected portions of
his work to the public in book form: - portions of his Revised Chronology were published as  
Worlds in Collision (1950), Ages in
Chaos
(1952), Earth in Upheaval (1955) Peoples of the Sea (1977) and Ramses II & his time (1978)., Earth in Upheaval (1955) .

Tower of Babel - Electric Shock?
http://www.burlingtonnews.net/books

“Let us prepare bricks and burn them with fire, that they may withstand the waters and building them
together with asphalt, let us make a high tower the top of which shall reach to heaven, in order that being
delivered from the Deluge we may find safety in the tower.”

After the first cataclysm, man started preparing for others to come. Observations of the movements of the heavenly bodies may have
provided a warning of a new catastrophe and large structures were built for refuge.

Unfortunately, when these events did come, many of these types of structures were overwhelmed by hurricanes and powerful
electrical discharges

Seneca mentioned that these electrical events took place after Zeus had defeated Chronis, which marked the beginnings of Jupiter’s
rule in the heavens. Seneca spoke of Jupiter's thunderbolts causing a threefold mass of mountains to fall. It was the first occasion on
which Jupiter used his lightning bolts.

The revolution of the giants is marked at the time when Jupiter began his rule in the heavens.

In the rabbinical concept of the seven earths, molded one out of another in successive catastrophes, the generation which built the
Tower of Babel inhabited the Age of the Fourth Earth, but goes on to the Age of the Fifth Earth, which would have been in the time of
the Tower Builders, those who had lost their language and memory. (Some feel that there was not much time between one
catastrophe and the other. Less than 2000 years.)

According to one account, when 1715 years had passed since the Deluge, men were destroyed by a violent hurricane (Uracan)
which carried off trees, mountains, houses and people, and great buildings. Those that had survived had taken refuge in caves,
underground and other places that this great wind could not reach.

In the disaster of the Tower of Babel, it is said that the people suffered from a loss of their language as well as loss of memory. Many
left for safer lands, which included North America.

Many of the sources which recount the destruction of the Tower of Babel maintain, in close accord with the Mexican account in that
the catastrophe was caused by a violent wind. “When the Immortal raised a mighty wind and threw down the mighty tower, there
arose among mankind fierce strife and hate. One speech was changed into many dialects, and earth was filled with divers, tribes and
kings.

In Gomara (ca. 1510-1560) we read the account: “The wind which occurred at that time was so great and of such force that it
overthrew all buildings and trees, and even broke mountains apart.”

Similar experiences in many places could have been brought about by one and the same cause. For example, the Arabic tradition
has a similar story taking place in South Arabia with the scene of the upheaval, followed by the confusion of languages and great
migrations

.The Burmese sacred writings relate, “When the world is destroyed by wind . . . the wind begins to blow and gradually increases. At
first it only raises sand and small stones; but at length it whirls about immense rocks, and the summits of mountains.”

The Vatican Codex, Ixtlilxochitl, and Veytia tell of the two world ages with Ehecatonatiuh, or the sun of wind as the Second Age
followed by Atonatiuh, sun of water.

The tradition that fire from heaven destroyed the tower is also a feature of Meso-American accounts, e.g., the legend recorded by
Pedro de los Rios concerning the foundation of the pyramid of Cholula in Mexico. After the waters of the Deluge had receded, one of
the survivors came to Cholula, where he began to build a large structure. It was his purpose to raise the mighty edifice to the clouds,
but the gods, offended at his presumption, hurled the fire of heaven down on the pyramid, many of the workmen perished, and the
building remained unfinished.

It is said that at the time of the Spanish conquest the inhabitants of Cholula preserved with great veneration a large aerolite, which
according to them was the very thunderbolt that fell on the pyramid and set it on fire.

Another Mexican tradition, recorded by Diego Duran in 1579, Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espana y las Islas de Tierra Firme I ,
Mexico, 1867, tells of giants who built a tower that almost reached the heavens, when it was destroyed by a thunderbolt.

Although some would prefer to boast that it was the mighty hand of God or Zeus that reached down and did these horrific deeds, it
would be more feasible that what these ancients experienced was the result of strong electrical discharges making contact with the
Tower's high structure, much like that of lightening hitting the lightening rod.

According to a tradition known to the twelfth century traveler Benjamin of Tudela, fire from heaven fell in the midst of the tower and
broke it asunder.

In the Tractate Sanhedrin of the Babylonian Talmud it is said: A third of the tower was burnt, a third sank into the earth and the third
remained standing.

In the ancient Mexican traditions it is told that those who survived the catastrophe of the sun of wind lost their reason and speech.
The characteristic of this catastrophe was its influence upon the mental, or mnemonic, capacity of the peoples. The description of it,
as told by many tribes and peoples, arouses the surmise that the earth underwent an electromagnetic disturbance, and that the
human race experienced something that in modern terms seems like a consequence of a 'deep electrical shock'. '

In Tractate Sanhedrin , it is said that the place where the Tower once stood retains the peculiar quality of inducing a total loss of
memory in anyone who passes it. We also know that the application of an electrical current to the head of a human being often
results in a partial loss of memory.
Loss of speech can also be induced by the application of electrodes to specific areas of the brain. The electro-convulsive therapy
used in psychiatry for the treatment of certain mental cases is administered by passing current through electrodes on the forehead.
Conducted through the brain, the electric discharge causes a period of confusion and a subsequent complete, though temporary,
loss of memory of the events immediately preceding the discharge. A number of patients complain also of consequent disturbances
of longer duration, and some of them suffer a patchy, retrograde amnesia.

THE CONFUSION OF LANGUAGES - ELECTRICAL SHOCK
Tower of Babel - Electric Shock?
http://www.burlingtonnews.net/books

“Let us prepare bricks and burn them with fire, that they may withstand the waters and building them together with asphalt, let us
make a high tower the top of which shall reach to heaven, in order that being delivered from the Deluge we may find safety in the
tower.”

After the first cataclysm, man started preparing for others to come. Observations of the movements of the heavenly bodies may have
provided a warning of a new catastrophe and large structures were built for refuge.

Unfortunately, when these events did come, many of these types of structures were overwhelmed by hurricanes and powerful
electrical discharges

Seneca mentioned that these electrical events took place after Zeus had defeated Chronis, which marked the beginnings of Jupiter’s
rule in the heavens. Seneca spoke of Jupiter's thunderbolts causing a threefold mass of mountains to fall. It was the first occasion on
which Jupiter used his lightning bolts.

The revolution of the giants is marked at the time when Jupiter began his rule in the heavens.

In the rabbinical concept of the seven earths, molded one out of another in successive catastrophes, the generation which built the
Tower of Babel inhabited the Age of the Fourth Earth, but goes on to the Age of the Fifth Earth, which would have been in the time of
the Tower Builders, those who had lost their language and memory. (Some feel that there was not much time between one
catastrophe and the other. Less than 2000 years.)

According to one account, when 1715 years had passed since the Deluge, men were destroyed by a violent hurricane (Uracan)
which carried off trees, mountains, houses and people, and great buildings. Those that had survived had taken refuge in caves,
underground and other places that this great wind could not reach.

In the disaster of the Tower of Babel, it is said that the people suffered from a loss of their language as well as loss of memory. Many
left for safer lands, which included North America.

Many of the sources which recount the destruction of the Tower of Babel maintain, in close accord with the Mexican account in that
the catastrophe was caused by a violent wind. “When the Immortal raised a mighty wind and threw down the mighty tower, there
arose among mankind fierce strife and hate. One speech was changed into many dialects, and earth was filled with divers, tribes and
kings.

In Gomara (ca. 1510-1560) we read the account: “The wind which occurred at that time was so great and of such force that it
overthrew all buildings and trees, and even broke mountains apart.”

Similar experiences in many places could have been brought about by one and the same cause. For example, the Arabic tradition
has a similar story taking place in South Arabia with the scene of the upheaval, followed by the confusion of languages and great
migrations

.The Burmese sacred writings relate, “When the world is destroyed by wind . . . the wind begins to blow and gradually increases. At
first it only raises sand and small stones; but at length it whirls about immense rocks, and the summits of mountains.”

The Vatican Codex, Ixtlilxochitl, and Veytia tell of the two world ages with Ehecatonatiuh, or the sun of wind as the Second Age
followed by Atonatiuh, sun of water.

The tradition that fire from heaven destroyed the tower is also a feature of Meso-American accounts, e.g., the legend recorded by
Pedro de los Rios concerning the foundation of the pyramid of Cholula in Mexico. After the waters of the Deluge had receded, one of
the survivors came to Cholula, where he began to build a large structure. It was his purpose to raise the mighty edifice to the clouds,
but the gods, offended at his presumption, hurled the fire of heaven down on the pyramid, many of the workmen perished, and the
building remained unfinished.

It is said that at the time of the Spanish conquest the inhabitants of Cholula preserved with great veneration a large aerolite, which
according to them was the very thunderbolt that fell on the pyramid and set it on fire.

Another Mexican tradition, recorded by Diego Duran in 1579, Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espana y las Islas de Tierra Firme I ,
Mexico, 1867, tells of giants who built a tower that almost reached the heavens, when it was destroyed by a thunderbolt.

Although some would prefer to boast that it was the mighty hand of God or Zeus that reached down and did these horrific deeds, it
would be more feasible that what these ancients experienced was the result of strong electrical discharges making contact with the
Tower's high structure, much like that of lightening hitting the lightening rod.

According to a tradition known to the twelfth century traveler Benjamin of Tudela, fire from heaven fell in the midst of the tower and
broke it asunder.

In the Tractate Sanhedrin of the Babylonian Talmud it is said: A third of the tower was burnt, a third sank into the earth and the third
remained standing.

In the ancient Mexican traditions it is told that those who survived the catastrophe of the sun of wind lost their reason and speech.
The characteristic of this catastrophe was its influence upon the mental, or mnemonic, capacity of the peoples. The description of it,
as told by many tribes and peoples, arouses the surmise that the earth underwent an electromagnetic disturbance, and that the
human race experienced something that in modern terms seems like a consequence of a 'deep electrical shock'. '

In Tractate Sanhedrin , it is said that the place where the Tower once stood retains the peculiar quality of inducing a total loss of
memory in anyone who passes it. We also know that the application of an electrical current to the head of a human being often
results in a partial loss of memory.
Loss of speech can also be induced by the application of electrodes to specific areas of the brain. The electro-convulsive therapy
used in psychiatry for the treatment of certain mental cases is administered by passing current through electrodes on the forehead.
Conducted through the brain, the electric discharge causes a period of confusion and a subsequent complete, though temporary,
loss of memory of the events immediately preceding the discharge. A number of patients complain also of consequent disturbances
of longer duration, and some of them suffer a patchy, retrograde amnesia.

ELIJAH AND THE CHARIOT OF FIRE

In the ninth century, as a result of cosmic events, the electrical charge of this planet was highly affected. The ionosphere above the
earth was charged to such an extent that leaps of discharge occurred from a cloudless sky.

In Velkovsky's book Ages in Chaos, he speaks of letters found in the Egyptian State Archive of El-Amarna that originated in the ninth
century. A considerable portion of them was written by Ahab King of Israel, Jehoshaphat king of Jerusalem, and their generals.

The corresponding texts of the Scriptures prove a very high grade of trustworthiness, even in transmission of orations and dialogues,
ascribed to historical personages.
This fact encourages to approach with credence the stories of Elijah and Elisha, interwoven in the same parts of the Book of Kings.
The Book of Kings ascribes this change to a rather natural cure of the captain by Elisha, who prescribed to the diseased seven
baths in the Jordan River. (The Jordan is rich with sulfur, magnesium, and brom salts, which enter the river at the Sea of Tiberias,
and constitute, after evaporation of water in the Dead Sea, its deposits.)

Another instance which throws a side-light on the activity of Elisha is the, two letters of the collection which were written to the
Pharaoh by the Great Lady of Shunem (Kings ). She wrote from that city, and signed Baalat-Ness, the Lady to whom a wonder had
occurred. There she wrote, ' Elisha revived her child employing artificial breathing and a contact of his own body with the body of the
infant.’

'The most of the wonders of Elijah had to do with atmospheric electricity. He was an 'electrical' man, occasionally a living barometer,
looking for electrical and magnetic 'wonders' to employ in his miracles.

Most of his wonders had to do with atmospheric electricity and was performed on top of a hill or mountain.

For example, when a prolonged drought endured for a number of years, Elijah went to the top of Mount Carmel and sat with his head
between his knees. From time to time, he asked his servant whether there was a cloud already seen over the sea. After a while a
cloud appeared, approached, and burst into abundant rain.

When a detachment from King Ahaziah was sent to interrogate him, Elijah, again on top of the hill, invoked a lightning bolt out of an
apparently cloudless sky to strike this group of men. According to the story he repeated this with a second detachment.

Attention should be paid to the fact that summits of certain mountains have an electrical halo, and that there is a permanent flow of
electricity as can be demonstrated by a wire that connects two points at different altitudes on the slope of a hill, and that a charged
electroscope is quickly discharged by ions, supposedly drifting from above. The enigmatic coolness of mountain tops is caused by an
electrical process.

The death of Elijah also takes place under circumstances that suggest an electrical phenomenon, such as ball lightening'. (Ball
lightening could be explained like that of a ball of fire in the sky, sometimes seen moving rather slowly and then exploding.)

The Second Book of Kings, tells how Elijah and his apprentice , Alisha , had crossed the River Jordan and ' behold, a chariot of fire
and horses of fire . . . parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven . . . And Elisha saw him no more . . .
he took up also the mantle of Elijah that fell from him, and went back . .The disciples of Elijah looked for several days lest the spirit of
the Lord hath taken him and cast him upon some mountain, or into some valley but they found him not.

It is a well-known phenomenon that a wire may evaporate when an electrical discharge strikes it, yet its envelope of fabric (an
insulator) remains intact. And this may have been the case with Elijah - the mantel was an insulator of sorts!

MOSES AND THE BURNING BUSH

It is told in the Book of Exodus that, in advance of the great catastrophes that preceded and accompanied the flight of the Israelites
from Egypt, the first sign of the things to come was the experience of Moses when he saw a burning bush. The bush, to his
amazement, was burning, yet the flame did not consume it (Exodus 3:2-4).There are several theories to the burning bush.

1.) The Christian belief that it was of divine interaction; for some a Djinn

2.) A Phenomenon of Phosphorescence or some similar radiation. A desert bush could glow in the dusk of the day if covered by
phosphorus dust and the Desert of Sinai, like Southern Israel abounds in deposits of phosphorus. Irradiated by light during the day,
phosphorus continues to glow in the dusk.

3.) Phenomena of an Electrical Nature, such as that known to us as St. Elmo Fire, which creates a visible electrical glow on the tops
and extremities of ship masts, the summits and ends of branches of trees, tops of mountains or church steeples. This electrical
phenomenon is especially apparent when the atmosphere is charged more than usual by electricity.
(Neither phosphorescence nor St. Elmo fire are consuming flames)

Moses observed that his hand temporarily turned white, as if afflicted by leprosy, upon keeping it in the dark recess of his clothing.
This, too, sounds like luminosity of phosphorescent or of a radioactive nature.

After being exposed to the burning bush, Moses felt an inner call to return to Egypt to announce great happenings and to demand
the right of worship for his people there.
In Worlds in Collision and Ages in Chaos, Velkovsky offers evidence that at the time of Moses, the Earth had entered the fabric of a
great comet. Most probably the celestial prodigy irradiated the Earth with the electrical glow of its dispersed trail of thin dust or gases.

A great train of meteorites was to follow; but already the precursor of the great and swiftly-moving masses, the thin dust of charged
particles, could make the phenomena of phosphorescence and St. Elmo fire rather pronounced. The great discharges exchanged
between the head and tail of the comet, retarded in its motion; the terrifying crashes (kolot) of the bolides (barad) on entering the
Earth’s atmosphere; the magnetic disturbances; and the electrical phenomena caused by the irregularities of the terrestrial motions
all must have contributed to the increased tensions between the ground and the upper atmosphere, and the radiations, some of
them of harmful nature, that filled the air of the entire world.
When Moses came from hiding in the cloud on Mount Sinai, his face shone (Exodus 34:30-35). This was regarded as a sign of
holiness, and actually in Christian times the saints are represented with a halo around their heads.

it is also said that he was burned by fire, but not consumed by it, during his stay on a mountain. Mountains themselves often possess
a halo

Charles Beke went to Arabia in 1874 in search of Mount Sinai and believed to have discovered it in Mount Seir, a mountain with an
electrical halo.

Michelangelo portrayed Moses on his famous statue, presently in Rome, with horns over his forehead. As many artists, he was
misled by the translation of the word keren (plural karnaim), which in Hebrew can mean both horn and ray. What the scriptural writer
had in mind when he described Moses descending from Mount Sinai was most certainly a halo of rays of light. In the aggadic or
legendary material not included in the Scriptures, Moses and Aaron, appearing before the Pharaoh, had already faces that were
illuminated, or glowed in the dark. The Biblical narrative renders the story of Moses descent from the mountain after the law giving as
the time when he impressed the people in the plain by his head shining in the dark: it was surrounded by rays of light, understood by
Michelangelo, horns protruding from his head. According to the material collected in Worlds in Collision, the comet that shone at the
end of the Middle Kingdom in Egypt and caused its downfall appeared to the peoples of the world at one time as a dragon with a
flaming body, at another moment as the head of a bull with horns stretched out towards the earth; these were horns of light. This
explains why the Hebrew word horns and the word rays is the same (keren, plural karnaim) can be understood in terms of the
phenomena attending the Exodus.
It is also very probable that the great discharges that accompanied the terrestrial catastrophes caused radiation diseases. The great
role that leprosy (zaarath) took in the medical concern of the priests during the wandering in the desert, and the very description of
this so-called leprosy that was cured by time and no other medicine, lets surmise that this disease was of radioactive nature.

In Numbers 11:31 - 33, we read about the people asking for meat, their request having been answered, yet the wrath of the Lord
causing them to die as a consequence of eating the flesh of the quail, a large flock of which was flung towards their camp.

It could have been the consequence of eating the flesh of the wild geese which may have been contaminated by radioactive fall-out.

Since antiquity a story was spread that the refugees were people sick with leprosy. Manetho, an author of the third pre-Christian
century, equated them with the lepers that were expelled from Egypt with the high priest Osarsiph; yet this story does not refer to the
time of the Exodus but belongs into the period of Libyan domination over Egypt. It is based on the story of Osorkon, whose expulsion
in the late eighth century took place in the midst of another series of catastrophes, during which portions of the Earth’s ozone layer
were stripped away, resulting in the penetration of dangerous amounts of radiation from space, and widespread radiation disease.

In the Book of Leviticus, there were many regulations concerning the diagnosis, the isolation, the quarantine, and the symptoms of
zaraath, relating to the time of the wandering in the desert.

This disease occupied the minds of the priests to the extent that the code of hygiene for the purpose of preventing disease deals
chiefly with zaraath. Leprosy does not break out in sudden symptoms. Yet the description we have of zaraath in the Scriptures
ascribes to this disease a sudden outbreak. A famous case of zaraath is narrated in II Chronicles, 26. It affected the king Uzziah.

Worlds in Collision, Velkovsky narrates in short the episode that preceded the outbreak of the affliction. It was during the planetary
upheavals of the eighth century, namely in -747. Narration is as follows:

According to the Midrashim and Talmud, on the west side of Jerusalem a mountain was split and one of its halves was hurled to the
east. Flaming seraphim leaped in the air. The population fled from Jerusalem in advance of the catastrophe; Uzziah burned incense
in the Temple and addressed himself to the Lord in the name of the nation.
This was interpreted by the priests as an appropriation of their priestly duties. The punishment that followed was ascribed to Uzziah
having committed a sin by burning incense in the Temple. The Temple itself was badly damaged by a great breach that rent its wall.
This shows that Uzziah was appearing before the Lord in the very moment of great danger. Flaming seraphim, or tongues of fire
leaped in the air. The king was stricken with zaraath.

According to the Book of Chronicles, the signs of zaraath shone on the king’s forehead in these very circumstances when the king
was in the Temple usurping the duties of the official intermediary between men and God. It would appear more probable that the
sickness which we would be inclined to recognize as radiation sickness, showed itself soon thereafter.

The sudden outbreak of the symptoms of leprosy would be even less likely than a sudden outbreak of a sickness which we would
think not entirely unexpected under the circumstances. In Assyria, and in the entire ancient world, a new era was counted from the
year -747; in Assyria it was the era of Nabonassar, still used many centuries later in astronomical computations.

In the Scriptures, too, we find that the time was counted from the days when the people escaped from before the raash (commotion)
of the days of Uzziah. The fact that the king who prayed for his people and realm was struck by a disease was regarded as a sign of
the Lord’s displeasure. Uzziah was placed in seclusion; and still today on the slopes of the Mount of Olives, close to the bottom of the
Valley of Jeshoshaphat, or of the Lord’s Judgment, in Jerusalem, tourists are shown the artificial grotto that looks like an enclosed
balcony with supporting columns where, according to the tradition, king Uzziah spent the rest of his reign, within sight of Jerusalem
and the Temple’s hill Moriah yet barred from entering.

Zaraath covered also the term for leprosy, at least in later times. And it took three thousand years to separate leprosy from the fear
of contamination it carried among all peoples.



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