THE  HYKOS (AMU) - Shepherd Kings

The origin of these kings, whom Manetho named Hyksos, has been somewhat contested. What is certain is that they were clearly not
of Egyptian origin, as their names and the origin of the word Hyksos (rulers of the foreign lands) clearly show.

What is also certain is that they came from the Near East, but when studying their names and culture(s), it becomes clear that these
Hyksos were not a homogenous group. Some names are Semitic in origin, while others appear to have Hurritic roots.

What is also unknown is the way this group of people gained control over large parts or even the whole of Egypt. The theory of a
foreign invasion is not confirmed by archaeological sources, so it seems more likely that this group slowly infiltrated the country.  
perhaps as early as the start of the  13th Dynasty. Some members of this group may perhaps have risen in the ranks and hierarchy of
the central government or even the military.

A weakened central government that eventually lost its grip on the country and had to share its power with the kings grouped together
in the 14th Dynasty, allowed them to create their own power base and, at one point, to claim kingship over a part of the country.
Alliances with local governors then may have allowed them to strengthen their grip on the country until they appear to have controlled
the entire country.

The Hyksos' power base appears to have been located in the southeast of the Nile Delta, in a city named Avaris. Manetho's claim that
they founded this city may perhaps be correct.

Hyksos rulership did not go totally unchallenged. Several other local potentates, many also of foreign origin, claimed rulership of small
parts of the country, mainly the Nile Delta, and are grouped together in the 16th Dynasty.

The strongest challenge, however, came from an Egyptian house, which ruled over the Theban region and which is known as the 17th
Dynasty. The conflict between both dynasties appears to have started during the reigns of Apophis in Avaris and Seqenenre in
Thebes. A 19th Dynasty story refers to a quarrel between both kings. Despite its obvious fictive nature, it is very likely that this story
was based on the memory of a true conflict between Avaris and Thebes. This may perhaps be confirmed by Seqenenre's mummy,
which shows clear marks of a violent death, perhaps on the battle field.

The conflict between the Hyksos and the Thebans continued during the reign of Kamose, son and successor to Seqenenre, who
succeeded in pushing back the Hyksos to their capital in Avaris. The final blow to Hyksos power in Egypt was delivered to them by
Ahmose, the successor of Kamose and the founder of the 18th Dynasty, who not only conquered the city of Avaris, but who also
chased the fleeing Hyksos well into Asia, thus starting Egypt's "age of empire".

At the end of the 12th dynasty a migration of Seminite  people called "Hyksos" settled down in the Eastern Delta of Egypt after being
driven out of their homeland by a great plague, earthquake and flood. . The Hyksos took over the rule of Egypt in the 17th century BC  
and during this period of time, there was peace and prosperity for Egypt. It is said that they  respected the native religions, maintained
ancient Egyptian as the official language of the government, and allowed many Egyptians to serve in the high levels of the
administration of the state. They taught the Egyptians new military techniques and introduced the use of the horse and chariot, bronze
weapons and composite bows.

They had their own gods but never imposed these on the indigenous people and the language in the administration continued to be
Egyptian. The one domestic god they worshipped was - Set or Seth , who they identified to their  their own god of storms. However,
the  Hyksos retained  their worship of Astarte (the Phonecian mother-goddess) and Reshep (a Phoenician storm god). They seem to
have adopted Egyptian manners, laws, and had trade relations with the Minoans and Babylonians. At the same time, the Hyksos living
in Egypt have been described as "Peculiarly Egyptian", but were great builders and artisans.

They were recognized by later Egyptians and listed as legitimate kings, but no tombs from these half a dozen rulers have been found
and their personal names were non-Egyptian.

Egypt came to  benefit considerably from this foreign rule, making it a  stronger country, with a much more viable military.  Until the
Hyksos rule , the history of Egypt and Asia were mostly isolated, while afterwards, they would be permanently entwined.  The  Hyksos
brought to Egypti the  hump backed Zebu cattle and introduced new vegetable and fruit crops that were cultivated. Improvements in
pottery and linen arose  from the introduction of improved potter's wheels and the vertical loom.

Perhaps one of the greatest contribution of the Hyksos was the preservation of famous Egyptian documents, both literary and
scientific. During the reign of Apophis, the fifth king of the “Great Hyksos,� scribes were commissioned to recopy Egyptian texts
so they would not be lost. One such text was the
Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus. This unique text, dating from about 3000 BC, gives
a clear perspective of the human body as studied by the Egyptians, with details of specific clinical cases, examinations, and prognosis.
Westcar Papyrus preserved the only known version of an ancient Egyptian story that may have otherwise been lost. Other
restored documents include the
Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, the most important mathematical exposition ever found in Egypt.

But it was the diffusion of innovations with more obvious military applications, such as bronze-working, which went far to compensate
for the technological backwardness of Middle Kingdom Egypt, and it was these advantages that eventually allowed the kingdom at
Thebes to gain back control of the Two Lands.

Ancient documents tell of the Hyksos burning buildings and cities to the ground, but I question if one of the reasons for this wasn't for
the fact that during the period of the great migration the lands were suffering from a plague.  The burning of these buildings may have
been in an attempt to cleanse the area of the plague.   As reported, God had smited the land - could this have been a reference to the
plague..and could not the Hyksos also have been affected as well by the plague as the Egyptians?

No hostility seems to have been between the two parts until the last 20 years until a liberation war,  initiated by
Amhose I and
completed by
Thutmoses III,  finally wiped out the Hyksos dynasty.


According to the Bible, Moses (Hykos)  took the daughter of the Midianite  King as a wife. The five Midianite kings of the five cities
were  destroyed by Moses for their allegiance with the peaceful Moabites. These are the kings Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur and Reba and
these are the Hyksos kings Scheschi, Apopi II, Apopi I, Chian and Jakobher on the Egyptian hieroglyphs as the Hyksos Kings. The
Pharaoh Anather is the same as Biblical Gideon.
The Moabites peaceful character and their many possessions may account for the terror of Moabite King Balak at the approach of the
Israelites. He took rather special means to guard against them. Instead of sending his army out, he first consulted with the leaders of
Midian. Moab and Midian were kin by virtue of their common descent from Terah, Moab through Lot from Haran, and Midian from
Abraham by Keturah. Gen. 11:27; 19:37; 25:2
The Hyksos  were  enemies of the Hittites who were Indo-European that controlled a  great empire that stretched from Mesopotamia to
Syria and Palestine. The Hittites are shrouded in fog and mystery; we don't where they came from, and for a long time the language
they spoke was undecipherable. There language came from  the Indo-European language family, which included  English, German,
Greek, Latin, Persian, and the languages of India.

Because their empire was so large and because their primary activity was commerce, trading with all the civilizations and peoples of
the Mediterranean, the Hittites were the people primarily responsible for transmitting Mesopotamian thought, law, political structure,
economic structure, and ideas around the Mediterranean, from Egypt to Greece. So the Hittites were  the great traders in the culture
built by the Sumerians and adopted and modified by later peoples. Because of the Hittites, when the Hebrews later migrated to
Canaan under Moses they found a people, the Canaanites, who were, culturally speaking, Mesopotamians.

The Hittites greatly modified the system of law they inherited from the Old Babylonians. The most extensive literature that the Hittites
have left us is, in fact, decrees and laws. These laws were far more merciful than the laws of the Old Babylonians, perhaps because
the Hittites were less concerned about maintaining a rigid, despotic central authority.  They modified the role of the monarch in that
they gave the king ownership of all the land under his control; previously, under the Sumerians and Amorites, private property was
allowed and the monarch only owned his own private property. Individuals were allowed control over land, which belong to the king,
only by serving in the king's army. So the bulk of the population became tenant farmers.

The Hittites adopted many of the gods of the Sumerians and Old Babylonians. They seemed to have recognized that all gods were
legitimate gods. Whenever they conquered a people, they adopted that people's gods into their religious system, in much the same
way the uji , or clans, in early Japan would adopt the gods of rival uji when they had conquered them. As far as history is concerned,
this has tremendous consequences for the history of the Hebrews. The Assyrians seem to have adopted the same tolerance towards
other religions, which allowed the Jewish faith to persist after the Jewish state was decimated by the Assyrians. And the Assyrians
seem to have adopted the same tendency to adopt the gods of conquered people, so the Assyrian conquerors of Palestine adopted
the Hebrew god, Yahweh, into their religion. This eventually led to the only major religious schism in Hebrew history, the schism
between Jews and Samaritans.

They was a recognized class of craftsmen especially potters, cobblers, carpenters and smiths, and though metal principally worked
was bronze, the smelting of iron was already understood and a high value was set on this metal. The medium of exchange was silver,
of which the Taurus Mountains contained an abundant supply; however, it is not known how this potential source of wealth was
controlled by the Hittite kings. Traces of metallurgy are found in Hattusas. Textual and material ranging from goldsmiths to shoemakers
and to pottery. The Hittite economy was based on agriculture. The main crops were wheat and barley.  Honey was a significant item in
the diet. Domestic livestock consisted of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and perhaps water-buffalo. Donkeys were used as pack animals.
They used also dogs as their best friends. Hittites used cuneiform script on their inscriptions. Also they used the hieroglyph form on
some inscription, intended for ordinary people to understand the contents easily.

The king was supreme ruler, military commander, judicial authority and high priest. Surrounding him was a large class of nobles and
dignitaries who, especially in the earlier centuries, possessed considerable power and were largely related to the king by blood.
Throughout, the government of the most important cities and provinces was assigned by the king to members of his own family, each
bounded to him by ties of homage and fealty. In later centuries, the same principle was extended to native vassal who became
members of the royal family by marriage. The oath of fealty was a personal matter and so it was necessary, on the death of a kind, for
all vassal treaties to be renewed by his successor. This feudal principle was in fact the basis of Hittite society as a whole. The nobles
possessed large manors, each with its own peasants and artisans, who held their tenements on condition of payment of rent in kind or
performance of appropriate services. A peasant could leave his holdings to his son; a craftsman could sell it, with the obligation
passing to the buyer; but the lord had the right to choose or approve the new feudatory and invest him with the obligation.

A notable characteristic of the Hittite state is the prominent part played by women, especially the queen. Pudupepa, wife of Hattusilis III,
is regularly associated with her husband in treaties an documents of the state and she even carried on correspondence with foreign
kings and queens in her own right. Both she and the last queen of Suppiluliumas I remained in office until their husbands' death; thus
it is inferred that the Hilife. There is some reason to believe that a matrilineal system once prevailed in Anatolia and the independent
position of the Hittite queen could be a result of this. The Hittite family was of the normal patriarchal type: the father gave his daughter
aqua in marriage; the bridegroom paid him the bride-price and thereafter took the bride and possessed her; if she was taken in
adultery he had the right to decide her fate.

From textual sources it is known that cremation was  the funerary custom of the Hittite kings. The ordinary people  were either buried
or cremated. They honored thousands of gods, but a few of their chief gods were Alalu, the  king in heaven in olden days and Anus  
who served as his cupbearer for 9 years before defeating him and dispatching him to under the earth. Anu (Akkadian in origin) ,
Kumarbi - 'the father of all gods' according to the Hurrian , who sometimes
equated with Enlil and Dagan.

Although the Hittite Empire vanished thousands of years ago, it has by no means been forgotten, and its capital Hattusha has been
declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Moreover, an enlarged copy of a cuneiform tablet found here hangs in the United Nations
building in New York. This tablet is a peace treaty concluded after the Battle of Kadesh between the Hittite king Hattusili III and the
Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II, demonstrating to modern statesmen that international treaties are a tradition going back to the earliest

The name of  the   Hy (KSOS),  is perhaps retained in the later Russian and Turkish term KAZAK equaling  "COSSACK" who were  
definied as adventurers, raiders and/or, nomadic shepherds.
The HYKSOS were a tribe (or tribes) of nomadic and warlike shepherd peoples (the Kassites, Kaska, Amorites, Aramaeans,
Midianites, Syrians, Palestinians) who spread across Palestine due to the chaos caused by earthquakes and the explosion of
Santorin. They took advantage of the so weakened peoples and governments in the region, and  extended their influence into Egypt,
until their expulsion .


AMORITES of the Bible may be the Aramaeans of the scholars - known in Sumerian and Akkadian texts as MAR.TU or AMURRU, who
are the people of MARI
The equation of Aramaean with Amorite is supported by Albright's thesis that Aramaic finds original traces in Mari texts, i.e., Amorite
texts. The description of the Amorites (Aramaeans) fits those of the Kassites. Amorite later becomes Aramaic, the lingua franca of the
fertile crescent, and ARAMAIC becomes ARABIC (through M>B shift. (The Aramaeans are today called Syrians and are related to the
The Aramaeans were known collectively as the KAL.DU or
Chaldeans, and - here is the connection to the Kassites and Hyksos - KAL.
DU is also written as KAS.DU in Babylonian and as KASDIM in Hebrew. In Assyro-Babylonian texts KAS4 means "to vagabond, run
freely about" so this again means "shepherds". The British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt has a good discussion of the Hyksos
as Palestinians.

In the
ABSOLUTE CHRONOLOGY OF THE ANCIENT WORLD , based on Astronomy and the Pharaonic Lists of Kings
Midianites of Moses are the Hyksos of the Egyptian History and of the15th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt
A review of the Egyptian hieroglyphs shows the following parallels of names.
* There are 5 known Hyksos Kings - and 5 Midianite Kings in the Bible - The Cartouches of the Kings are pictured and explained at

15th Dynasty
Hyksos King Scheschi (Maaibre) is Midianite King EVI
Hyksos King Jakobher (Meruserre) is Midianite King REBA
Hyksos King Chian (Sueserenre) is Midianite King HUR
Hyksos King Apopi I (Auserre) is Midianite King ZUR
Hyksos King Apopi II (Aqenenre) is Midianite King REKEM

16th Dynasty
The "King" Anather is the Biblical Judge GIDEON (Jerubboseth) and his name points to his leadership in the founding of New Salem, i.
e. New Jerusalem
see the cartouches.
In other words, Jerusalem was founded after the outbreak of the volcano Santorin on Thera which must have destroyed the old city.
The "King" Jakbam is Gideon´s son ABIMELECH (Jephtah).
There is no cartouche around the names because, as the Bible reports, Gideon refused kingship.

17th Dynasty in Thebes
The King SOBEKEMSAF II (Sechemre Schedtaui) is MOSES
The King ANTEF VII (Nubcheperre) is AARON (Aron Haberit)
The King TA´A I. is ELEASAR
The King TA´A II. is Seqenenre = NUN who was killed by the Philestines (Palestianians) who then took the ark.
The King Kamose is HO-PHNIS, identical to PINEHAS

18th Dynasty
The Pharaoh AHMOSE is JOSHUA
(Barak is the perch of the Bird - Akkadian)

According to Artapanus, Moses was born circa 1708 BC
At the age of 40, before Exodus, Moses first fled [ca. 1667 BC] from Egypt and sought refuge among the Midianites (2 Moses 2, 15)
who - on the basis of Egyptian Hieroglyphs - were none other than the Hyksos, which the British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt
describes as follows (p. 136):
HYKSOS:  "...a Palestinian group...who migrated into Egypt during the late Middle Kingdom (c. 1800-1650 BC) and rose to power in
Lower Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period (1650-1550 BC)."
MIDIANITES (also called ISHMAELITES, Enc. Brit.):
The Lion Handbook of the Bible notes that the Midianites "were descendants of Abraham through his second wife, Keturah."
(1 Moses 25,2 and 1 Chronicles 1,32) Abraham had sent all the sons of Keturah into the desert. As noted in the Encyclopaedia
Britannica, "they engaged in pastoral pursuits, caravan trading and banditry... Jethro, priest-leader of the Midianite subtribe the
Kenites, and his daughter Zipporah (a wife of Moses), influenced early Hebrew thought: it was Yahweh, the lord of the Midianites, who
was revealed to Moses as the God of the Hebrews."
Moses took Zipporah as his wife and the priest Jethro became his father-in-law. In spite of this, because of the alliance of the Kenites
with the Moabites in the days of Exodus, Moses ordered his people to handle the Midianites as enemies because of ther idolatry (4
Moses 22, 4-7, 5 Moses 16-18) and indeed their five kings Evi, Rekem, Zur Hur and Reba (5 Moses 8) and all their cities were burned
to the ground (5 Moses 10).
Tell el-Daba  (Auris)  As noted in the Chronicle of the Pharaohs by Peter A. Clayton, newest excavations clearly indicate that the cities
in the northeastern Nile Delta were completely destroyed at the end of the Hyksos period.

The Hapiru were Arabs
The period of Kassite (Amorite) rule is a dark age in the fertile crescent, during which the Amorite language became dominant in Syria
and Palestine - and is retained down to this day as Arabic. These Amorites are surely the Habiru or Hapiru of history (the "correct"
transcription is ha-ru-bi or ha-ru-pi i.e. "the shepherd people" or ARABs). Indeed, as noted in the Lion Handbook to the Bible "during
most of the 1st millennium BC (by current chronology), the Arabians appear mainly as raiders

In the story of Joseph,  there was a famine in Canaan which forced a small wandering band of seventy Hebrews, or "Habirus", under
the leadership of Joseph, to settled near the mouth of the Nile River. They were welcomed by their cousins, the Hykos, and Joseph
was accepted into their royal court.

(Yu-ya - Alalu-Ea)
Biblical Joseph  - Egyptian Prime Minister during 1400 BC
Married to Thuya
Egyptian  and King  Ben-Hadad I
Father of Tiy. Yuya's blonde hair and Caucasian facial struture have been well preserved by the embalming process.
Yuya bore the prestigious title of "Father of God [Pharaoh]"meaning pharaoh's 'father-in-law'.
Was  priest of both Hermonthis and Amon during his career.
The name "Yu-ya" is essentially identical with the name of God given to Moses from the burning bus

The first Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty  and the Rise of the God AMUN
AhmoseI  - The Warrior King Joshua

The first king of the New Kingdom, Ahmose came from a line of Theban rulers (17th Dynasty).  Following the death of his brother,
Kamose Ahmose then became head of the Theban royal line.   Son of Seqenenre-Tao II and Queen Ahhotep., Ahmose was roughly
ten years old, when he became head of the Theban royal line, after the death of his brother, Kamose Ahmose. His mother  Ahhotep
became co-regent with him  and  in year 16 or his reign he overthrew the Hykos and took reign over the land of Egypt of which they
held for approximately 100 years .
Ahmose I slowly drove the Hyksos back to their capital Avaris (location on one of the eastern branches of the Nile in Lower Egypt),
once here Ahmose laid siege to the city. Ahmose had troubles of his own with his kingdom, he left the siege of Avaris in the control of
his military commanders so that he was free to placate a rebellion in the Theban region. When Ahmose returned to Avaris he found
that negotiations had been taking place between the Hyksos and his military commanders ­ the Hyksos were allowed to leave Egypt
gracefully in return for surrendering the city .
Ahmose also honoured his god for the many victories Ahmose had won - he endowed the temple of his capital city with many gifts, this
act was to set a precedent for future kings of Egypt, one which began the rise of Amun over all other gods of Egypt and the beginning
of the Great Mystery Schools.

The Great Mysteries Schools - White Brotherhood and the Free Masons  -
Continued on Next Page
Old Hyksos Language
Old Hyksos is the native
language of the dragon
population of Lamutria,
Heraldinia and the Mist
It is also the language
used by mages to build
their spells.

The language has a small
vocabulary, a mere
twenty-four words. There
are three suffixes that
change the meaning of
those twenty-four words. In
addition, negation of a
word often produces a
distinct meaning. For
instance, while cepra
means 'animal', ne cepra
means 'plant.'
As Old Hyksos is used by
mages, the lexicon is
graded. There are fifteen
degrees, ranging from the
third pupil who knows a
handful of words to the
first archmage who knows
all and can build
permanent pentangles,
the Old Hyksos equivalent
of poetry. The appropriate
level is indicated in the -
alphabetic - lexicon.
The hieroglyph , read from right to left
reads M-S ZVAIGZ-nes [Zvaigznes
="stars"] which is Moshe, "Star Priest"
[of Thebes]*
Bust of Moses and His Hieroglpyhic Name
Today, the "Statue" of
Moses above - in black
diorite -
is in the Museum of Art
History in Vienna but the
and feet are in the
National Museum of
Ireland in Dublin.

It is the statue of a man
whose hieroglyphic name
is transcribed - erroneously
- by Egyptologists as
This is Sechemre
Schedtaui - also
erroneously transcribed ,
the 1st King of Thebes of
the 17th Dynasty,
a reign dated by current
chronology to ca.
1650-1600 B.C.
MOSES and the tale of ARTAPANUS
(See David Rohl's book, A Test of Time, Random House, London, 1995)

MOSES WAS BORN - writes Artapanus - in the reign of Chaneferre (Khenephres), known as Sobekhotep IV,
who, even by current chronology, ruled ca. 1700 B.C.

Clemens' Stromata summarizes the writings of Artapanus, a Jewish historian who wrote Peri Iodaion.
Artapanus is named by Eusebius in his Evangelicae Preparationis and his detailed account of the life of
Moses is reported in his Pamphilis, Book 9, Ch. 27, 1-37.

That life story of MOSES agrees with the Egyptian "SINUHE Story" - which originated in the Pharaonic 12th
Dynasty (!) at the time of A-MEN-EM-HET III.

It is about a young man who flees Egypt (as does Moses), goes to Palestine (as does Moses),
where Sinuhe finds the support of Prince Retenju just as Moses finds the help of "Raguel" in Artapanus, and
of "Reguel" viz. "Jitro" in the Biblical Exodus (2,18; 3,1;4,18; 18,1).

The Pharaoh who first "enslaved" the Hebrews, says Artapanus, was called PAL-MEN-O-THES and had a
city and temple built at "Kessan" (as Rohl correctly notes, "Kes" in the eastern Delta)
called "Kessan" in the Septuagint and "Goshen" in the Masora,  which is generally equated with On,
Heliopolis or Egyptian Iunu.

The statue of Moses (Sebekemsaf) was found at Armant, (Ar-Mant is related to Iunu-Month)
which was greatly developed in the 12th dynasty.

Pharaoh PAL-MEN-O-THIS is surely the same as A-MEN-E(M)-HET(is) III out of that very same 12th dynasty.
The first syllable has simply been mistranscribed by Egyptologists or Greeks.

It was during the 12th dynasty that territorial expansion against Kush and Nubia reached its peak, and the
story of Moses tells us that he also campaigned against Nubia and Ethiopia in his youth.
was buried near Dra
Abu el-Naga in the
Theben necropolis.
Exploring the Unknown   
Mary Sutherland
Brad and Mary Sutherland
248 Carver Street
Winslow, Illinois 61089
815 367 1006
The staff of Moses displayed at Birmingham Museum