The Serpent God Amun Re
Regenerated himself by becoming a snake and shedding his skin.

Amun- Re  (Amen, Amon) - The Pyramid Text from the  Old Kingdom (5th Dynasty, Unas - line 558) show him to be a primeval deity and a symbol of creative force. Most of his prestige came after
replacing the war god Montu  when he became the  principle god of Thebes during Egypt's New Kingdom. By the 25th Dynasty, Amun-Re was " King of the Gods", chief god of the Nubian Kingdom of
Napata and by the Ptolemic, or Greek period, he was regarded as the Egyptian equivalent of Zeus. Amun-Re grew so important spiritually and politically, the other gods became mere symbols of his
power, or manifestations of Amun-Re. In essence, he became the one and only supreme deity.

He was one of the eight Heh gods of the Ogdoad of Hermopolis, where his original consort was Amaunet (Ament). His worship may have originated at Hermopolis, but another possibility was that he
functioned early on as a less prominent god at Thebes, where he eventually flourished. The Nubians, however, believed that he originated at Gebel Barkal, located in the modern north of the Sudan.

With  the expulsion of the Hyksos rulers of Egypt  (middle of the 16th Dynasty) , Amun's growth was accelerated due to the vindication of both Egyptian power and Amun-Re as a protector of both the
Egyptian state and the Monarchy.  At that time, temples were built and dedicated to Amun throughout Egypt, including the Luxor Temple and the Great Temple at Karnak. His importance during this
and later periods is evidenced by the grander and extravagance of these temples. They were enlarged and enriched over the centuries by rulers of Egypt who were eager to express their devotion to

The Thebes Triad - Origination of the Trinity  -

In fact, his growth to that of a national god mirrored the growth of Thebes in importance. This growth was accelerated when Amenemhet I took control of the thrown at Thebes, and founded the 12th
Dynasty. However, the apex of his worship probably occurred during the New Kingdom onward at Thebes, where the important Opet festival was dedicated to Amun. During the Opet Festival, the
statue of Amun was conveyed by boat from the temple of Karnak to Luxor in order to celebrate Amun's marriage to Mut in his aspect of Ka-mut-ef (literally, "bull of his mother"). In this capacity, Amun
was recognized for his procreative function. Together, Amun and Mut conceived their son, Khonsu, a moon god, to create of the Thebes Triad.

The sacred animal of Amun was originally the Goose, and like Geb, he was sometimes known as the "Great Cackler". Later, Amun was more closely associated with the Ram, a symbol of fertility. At
various times he also appears as a man with the head of a frog, the head of a uraeus, the head of a crocodile, or as an ape. However, when depicted as a king, he wears the crown of two plumes, a
symbol borrowed from Min, and often sits on a throne. In this form, he is one of nine deities who compose the company of gods of Amen-Ra. In the Greek period (and somewhat earlier, in order to
ascribe many attributes to Amun-Re, he was sometimes depicted in bronze with the bearded head of a man, the body of a beetle with the wings of a hawk, the legs of a man and the toes and claws of a
lion. He was further provided with four hands and arms and four wings.

The worship surrounding Amun, and later, Amun-Re represented one of ancient Egypt's most complex theologies. In his most mature form, Amun-Re became a hidden, secret god. In fact, his name
(Imn), or at least the name by which the ancient Egyptians called him, means "the hidden one" or "the secret one" (though there has been speculation that his name is derived from the Libyan word for
water, aman. However, modern context seems to negate this possibility). In reality, however, and according to mythology, both his name and physical appearance were unknown, thus indicating his
unknowable essence.

Stated differently, Amun was unknown because he represented absolute holiness, and in this regard, he was different then any other Egyptian deity. So holy was he that he remained  independent of
the created universe. He was associated with the air as an invisible force, which facilitated his growth as a supreme deity. He was the Egyptian creator deity par excellence, and according to Egyptian
myth, was self-created. It was believed that he could regenerate himself by becoming a snake and shedding his skin
. At the same time, he remained apart from creation, totally different from it, and
fully independent from it.

However, while hidden, the addition to his name of "Re" revealed the god to humanity. Re was the common Egyptian term for the sun, thus making him visible. Hence, the name Amun-Re combined
within himself the two opposites of divinity, the hidden and the revealed. As Amun, he was secret, hidden and mysterious, but as Re, he was visible and revealed. In some respects, this even relates to
his association with Ma'at, the Egyptian concept of order and balance, and reflects back upon the ancient Egyptian's concepts of duality.

The secret, or hidden attribute of Amun enabled him to be easily synchronized and associated with other deities. At Thebes, Amun was first identified with Montu, but soon replaced him as the city's
protector. His association with Re grew in importance when Amenemhet I moved the capital of Egypt to Itjtawy at the apex of the Nile Delta, where the relationship was probably expedient both
theologically and politically. However, this association with Re actually grew as Thebes itself gained importance. Soon, Amun was identified with other gods as well, taking on the names (among others)
Amun-Re-Atum, Amun-Re-Montu, Amun-Re-Horakhty and Min-Amun. However, it should be noted that with all of this synchronization, Amun was not absorbed to create a a new god. Instead, there was
a unity of divine power with these other gods.

Amun-Re was associated with the Egyptian monarchy, and theoretically, rather than threatening the pharaoh's power, the throne was supported by Amun-Re. The ancient theology made Amun-Re the
physical father of the king. Hence, the Pharaoh and Amun-Re enjoyed a symbiotic relationship, with the king deriving power from Amun-Re. In return, the king supported the temples and the worship of
Amun. In theory, Amun-Re could even take the form of the king in order to impregnate the chief royal wife with the successor to the throne (first documented during the reign of Hatshepsut during the
New Kingdom). Furthermore, according to official state theology during the New Kingdom, Egypt was actually ruled by Amun-Re through the pharaohs, with the god revealing his will through oracles.

In reality, the god did in fact threaten the monarchy, for the cult of Amun-Re became so powerful that its priesthood grew very large and influential, and at one point, priests of the deity actually came to
rule Egypt (during the 21st Dynasty). At other times, Amun-Re created difficulties for the king, such as in the case of Akhenaten, who sought to change the basic structure of Egyptian religion. In this
instance, Amun-Re eventually proved more powerful then the king, for though Akhenaten desperately tried to change the nature of Egyptian religion, for such efforts he himself became the scorn of
later pharaohs. After Akhenaten's reign, Egyptian religion almost immediately reverted back to its prior form and to the worship of Amun-Re.


Title Author Date Publisher Reference Number
Ancient Gods Speak, The: A Guide to Egyptian Religion Redford, Donald B. 2002 Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-515401-0
Atlas of Ancient Egypt Baines, John; Malek, Jaromir 1980 Les Livres De France None Stated
Egyptian Religion Morenz, Siegfried 1973 Cornell University Press ISBN 0-8014-8029-9
Gods of the Egyptians, The (Studies in Egyptian Mythology) Budge, E. A. Wallis 1969 Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 486-22056-7
History of Ancient Egypt, A Grimal, Nicolas 1988 Blackwell None Stated
Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, The Shaw, Ian 2000 Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-815034-2
Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, The McManners, John 1992 Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-285259-0
Valley of the Kings Weeks, Kent R. 2001 Friedman/Fairfax ISBN 1-5866-3295-7


  • The mummy of the wife of King Tutankhamen has auburn hair.

  • A mummy with red hair, red mustache and red beard was found
      by the pyramids at Saqqara.

  • Red-haired mummies were found in the crocodile-caverns of Aboufaida.

  • The book HISTORY OF EGYPTIAN MUMMIES mentions a mummy with reddish-brown hair.

  • The mummies of Rameses II  and Prince Yuaa  have fine silky yellow hair.

  • The mummy of another pharaoh, Thothmes II, has light chestnut-colored hair.

  • An article in a leading British anthropological journal states that many mummies have dark reddish-brownhair.  Professor Vacher De Lapouge described a blond mummy found at Al Amrah, which
    he says has the face and skull measurements of a typical Gaul or Saxon.

  • A blond mummy was found at Kawamil along with many chestnut-colored ones.

  • Chestnut-haired mummies have been found at Silsileh.

  • The mummy of Queen Tiy has "wavy brown hair."

  • Unfortunately, only the mummies of a very few pharaohs have survived to the 20th century, but a large proportion of these are blond.

  • The Egyptians have left us many paintings and statues of blondes and redheads. Amenhotep III's tomb painting shows him as having light red hair.  Also, his features are quite caucasian

  • A farm scene from around 2000 B.C. in the tomb of the nobleman Meketre shows redheads.

  • An Egyptian scribe named Kay at Sakkarah around 2500 B.C. has blue eyes.

  • The tomb of Menna (18th Dynasty) at West Thebes shows blond girls.
  • The god Horus is usually depicted as white. He is very white in the Papyrus Book of the Dead of Lady Cheritwebeshet (21st Dynasty), found in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

  • A very striking painting of a yellow-haired man hunting from a chariot can be found in the tomb of Userhet, Royal Scribe of Amenophis II.  The yellow-haired man is Userhet. The same tomb has
    paintings of blond soldiers. The tomb of Menna also has a wall painting showing a blond man supervising two dark-haired workers scooping grain.

  • The Funerary stele (inscribed stone slab)of Priest Remi clearly shows him as having red hair,

  • The eye of Horus, the so-called Wedjat Eye. is always blue.

  • A very attractive painting is found on the wall of a private tomb in West Thebes from the 18th Dynasty. The two deceased parents are white people with black hair. Mourning them are two pretty
    fair-skinned girls with light blond hair and their red-haired older brother.

  • Queen Thi is painted as having a rosy complexion, blue eyes and blond hair.  She was co-ruler with her husband Amenhotep III and it has been said of their rule. "The reign of Amenhotep III was
    the culminating point in Egyptian history, for never again, in spite of the exalted effort of the Ramessides, did Egypt occupy so exalted a place among the nations of the world as she had in his

  • Amenhotep III looks northern European in his statues.

  • Paintings of people with red hair and blue eyes were found at the tomb of Bagt in Beni Hassan. Many other tombs at Beni Hassan have paintings of individuals with blond and red hair as well as
    blue eyes.

  • Paintings of blonds and redheads have been found among the tombs at Thebes.

  • Blond hair and blue eyes were painted at the tomb of Pharaoh Menphtah in the valley of the Kings.

  • Paintings from the Third Dynasty show native Egyptians with red hair and blue eyes. They are shepherds, workers and bricklayers.

  • A blond woman was painted at the tomb of Djeser-ka-ra-seneb in Thebes.

  • A model of a ship from about 2500 B.C. is manned by five blond sailors.

  • The god Nuit was painted as white and blond.

  • A painting at the tomb of Meresankh III at Giza, from about 2485 B.C., shows white skin and red hair.

  • Two statues from about 2570 B.C., found in the tombs at Medum, show Prince Rahotep and his wife Nofret. He has light green stones for eyes. She has violet-blue stones.

  • A painting from Iteti's tomb at Saqqara shows a very Nordic-looking man with blond hair.

  • Grafton Smith mentions the distinctly red hair of the 18th Dynasty mummy Henutmehet.

  • Harvard Professor Carleton Coon, in his book THE RACES OF EUROPE, tells us that "many of the officials, courtiers, and priests, representing the upper class of Egyptian society but not the
    royalty, looked strikingly like modern Europeans, especially long-headed ones." (Note: Nordics are long-headed.)  Long-headed Europeans are most common in Britain, Scandinavia, the
    Netherlands, and northern Germany.

  • Time-Life books put out a volume called RAMESES II THE GREAT. It has a good picture of the blond mummy of Rameses II. Another picture can be found in the book X-RAYING THE
    PHARAOHS, especially the picture on the jacket cover. It shows his yellow hair.

  • A book called CHRONICLE OF THE PHARAOHS was recently published showing paintings, sculptures and mummies of 189 pharaohs and leading personalities of Ancient Egypt. Of these, 102
    appear European, 13 look Black, and the rest are hard to classify. All nine mummies look like our Europeans.

  • The very first pharaoh, Narmer, also known as Menes, looks very Caucasion

  • The same can be said for Khufu's cousin  Hemon, who designed the Great Pyramid of Giza, with help from Imhotep. A computer-generated reconstruction of the face of the Sphinx shows a
    European-looking face. It was once painted sunburned red.  The Egyptians often painted
  upper class men as red and upper class women as white; this is because the men became sun-burned or tanned while
   outside under the burning Egyptian sun. The women, however, usually stayed inside.

  • In 1902, E. A. Wallis Budge, the renowned Egyptologist, described the pre-dynastic Egyptians thus:

  • "The predynastic Egyptians, that is to say, that stratum of them which was indigenous to North Africa, belonged to a white or light-skinned race with fair hair, who in many particulars resembled
    the Libyans, who in later historical times lived very near the western bank of the Nile." [E. A. W. Budge, Egypt in the Neolithic and Archaic Periods (London: Kegan Paul, Trench & Trübner,
    1902), p. 49.]

  • Later, in the same book, Budge referred to a pre-dynastic statuette that: "has eyes inlaid with lapis-lazuli, by which we are probably intended to understand that the woman here represented had
    blue eyes." [Ibid., p. 51.]

  • In 1925, the Oxford don L. H. Dudley Buxton, wrote the following concerning ancient Egyptian crania:

  • "Among the ancient crania from the Thebaid in the collection in the Department of Human Anatomy in Oxford, there are specimens which must unhesitatingly be considered to be those of Nordic
    type. [L. H. D. Buxton, The Peoples of Asia (London: Kegan Paul, Trench & Trübner, 1925), p. 50.]

  • The Scottish physical anthropologist Robert Gayre has written, that in his considered opinion:

  • "Ancient Egypt, for instance, was essentially a penetration of Caucasoid racial elements into Africa . . . This civilisation grew out of the settlement of Mediterraneans, Armenoids, even Nordics,
    and Atlantics in North Africa . . ." [R. Gayre of Gayre, Miscellaneous Racial Studies, 1943-1972 (Edinburgh: Armorial, 1972), p. 85.]

  • When English archaeologist Howard Carter excavated the tomb of Tutankhamen in 1922, he discovered in the Treasury a small wooden sarcophagus. Within it lay a memento of Tutankhamen's
    beloved grandmother, Queen Tiye: "a curl of her auburn hair." [C. Desroches-Noblecourt, Tutankhamen: Life and Death of a Pharaoh (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1972), p. 65.]  (See
    mummy picture)

  • Queen Tiye (18th Dynasty), was the daughter of Thuya, a Priestess of the God Amun. Thuya's mummy, which was found in 1905, has long, red-blonde hair. Examinations of Tiye's mummy
    proved that she bore a striking resemblance to her mother. [B. Adams, Egyptian Mummies (Aylesbury: Shire Publications, 1988), p. 39.]  (See mummy picture)

  • A painting of the mother of Pharaoh Amenhotep IV (18th Dynasty), reveals that she had blonde hair, blue eyes and a rosy complexion. [W. Sieglin, Die blonden Haare der indogermanischen
    Völker des Altertums (Munich: J. F. Lehmanns Verlag, 1935), p. 132.]

  • Princess Ranofri, a daughter of Pharaoh Tuthmosis III (18th Dynasty), is depicted as a blonde in a wall painting that was recorded in the 19th century, by the Italian Egyptologist Ippolito Rosellini.
    [Ibid., p. 132.]

  • In 1929 archaeologists discovered the mummy of fifty year-old Queen Meryet-Amun (another daughter of Tuthmosis III); the mummy has wavy, light-brown hair. [R. B. Partridge, Faces of
    Pharaohs (London: Rubicon Press, 1994), p. 91.]

  • American Egyptologist Donald P. Ryan excavated tomb KV 60, in the Valley of the Kings, during the course of 1989. Inside, he found the mummy of a royal female, which he believes to be the
    long-lost remains of the great Queen Hatshepsut (18th Dynasty). Ryan describes the mummy as follows:

  • "The mummy was mostly unwrapped and on its back. Strands of reddish-blond hair lay on the floor beneath the bald head." [Ibid., p. 87.]

  • Manetho, a Graeco-Egyptian priest who flourished in the 3rd century BC, wrote in his Egyptian History, that the last ruler of the 6th Dynasty was a woman by the name of Queen Nitocris. He has
    this to say about her:

  • "There was a queen Nitocris, braver than all the men of her time, the most beautiful of all the women, blonde-haired with rosy cheeks. By her, it is said, the third pyramid was reared, with the
    aspect of a mountain." [W. G. Waddell, Manetho (London: William Heinemann, 1980), p. 57.]

  • According to the Graeco-Roman authors Pliny the Elder, Strabo and Diodorus Siculus, the Third Pyramid was built by a woman named Rhodopis. When translated from the original Greek, her
    name means "rosy-cheeked". [G. A. Wainwright, The Sky-Religion in Egypt (Cambridge: University Press, 1938), p. 42.]

  • We may also note that a tomb painting recorded by the German Egyptologist C. R. Lepsius in the 1840s, depicts a blonde woman by the name of Hetepheres (circa 5th Dynasty). The German
    scholar Alexander Scharff, observed that she was described as being a Priestess of the Goddess Neith, a deity who was sacred to the blond-haired Libyans of the Delta region. He goes on to
    state that her name is precisely the same as that of Queen Hetepheres II, who is also shown as fair-haired, in a painting on the wall of Queen Meresankh III's tomb. He deduced from all of this,
    that the two women may well have been related, and he suggested that Egypt during the Age of the Pyramids, was dominated by an elite of blonde women. [A. Scharff, "Ein Beitrag zur
    Chronologie der 4. ägyptischen Dynastie." Orientalistische Literaturzeitung XXXI (1928) pp. 73-81.]

  • The twentieth prayer of the 141st chapter of the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, is dedicated "to the Goddess greatly beloved, with red hair." [E. A. W. Budge, The Book of the Dead
    (London: Kegan Paul, Trench & Trübner, 1901), p. 430.] In the tomb of Pharaoh Merenptah (19th Dynasty), there are depictions of red-haired goddesses. [N. Reeves & R. H. Wilkinson, The
    Complete Valley of the Kings (London: Thames & Hudson, 1997), p. 149.]

  • In the Book of the Dead, the eyes of the god Horus are described as "shining," or "brilliant," whilst another passage refers more explicitly to "Horus of the blue eyes". [Budge, op. cit., pp. 421 &
    602.] The rubric to the 140th chapter of said book, states that the amulet known as the "Eye of Horus," (used to ward-off the "Evil Eye"), must always be made from lapis-lazuli, a mineral which is
    blue in colour. [Ibid., p. 427.] It should be noted that the Goddess Wadjet, who symbolised the Divine Eye of Horus, was represented by a snake (a hooded cobra to be precise), and her name,
    when translated from the original Egyptian, means "blue-green". [A. F. Alford, The Phoenix Solution (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1998), pp. 266-268.] Interestingly, the ancient Scandanavians
    claimed that anyone who was blue-eyed (and therefore possessed the power of the Evil Eye), had "a snake in the eye," and blue eyes were frequently compared to the eyes of a serpent. [F. B.
    Gummere, Germanic Origins (London: David Nutt, 1892), pp. 58, 62.]

  • In the ancient Pyramid Texts, the Gods are said to have blue and green eyes. [Alford, op. cit., p. 232.] The Graeco-Roman author Diodorus Siculus (I, 12), says that the Egyptians thought the
    goddess Neith had blue eyes. [C. H. Oldfather, Diodorus of Sicily (London: William Heinemann, 1968), p. 45.]

  • A text from the mammisi of Isis at Denderah, declares that the goddess was given birth to in the form of a "ruddy woman". [J. G. Griffiths, De Iside et Osiride (Cardiff: University of Wales Press,
    1970), p. 451.] Finally, the Greek author Plutarch, in the 22nd chapter of his De Iside et Osiride, states that the Egyptians thought Horus to be fair-skinned, and the god Seth to be of a ruddy
    complexion. [Ibid., p. 151.]

Red Haired Mummies of Egypt
red haired mummies  red haired mummies  red haired mummies  red haired mummies   red haired mummies

There were the blue-bloods of
Ancient Times which extended into
European Times. . They actually did
have blue blood, and it was not
hemoglobin based but copper
based. They were semi-human.
There are still to this day, some
animal species in South America
that have copper based blood
systems. There was a problem
with hemophilia, and not because
of intermarrying. The problem was
that they started to marry outside
of the copper based blood system.
Hemoglobin and copper systems
don't mix. That's where the laws
against marrying commoners
Compiled and written by Mary Sutherland -Support her work by purchasing her books "In Search of Ancient Man"
The Serpent God Amun Re
Regenerated himself by becoming a snake and shedding his skin.

However, when depicted as a king, he wears the crown of two
a symbol borrowed from Min, and often sits on a throne. In this form,
he is one of nine deities who compose the company of gods of Amen-Ra. In the
Greek period (and somewhat earlier, in order to ascribe many attributes to
Amun-Re, he was sometimes depicted in bronze with the bearded head of a
man, the body of a beetle with the wings of a hawk, the legs of a man and the
toes and claws of a lion. He was further provided with four hands and arms and
four wings.

The WIsconsin Man Mounds may be symbolic of the Serpent God Amun Re
Mary Sutherland is an author and
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