THE  HYKOS (AMU) - Shepherd Kings

The origin of these kings, whom Manetho named Hyksos, has been somewhat contested. What is certain is that they were clearly not of
Egyptian origin, as their names and the origin of the word Hyksos (rulers of the foreign lands) clearly show.

What is also certain is that they came from the Near East, but when studying their names and culture(s), it becomes clear that these Hyksos
were not a homogenous group. Some names are Semitic in origin, while others appear to have Hurritic roots.

What is also unknown is the way this group of people gained control over large parts or even the whole of Egypt. The theory of a foreign invasion
is not confirmed by archaeological sources, so it seems more likely that this group slowly infiltrated the country.  perhaps as early as the start of
the  13th Dynasty. Some members of this group may perhaps have risen in the ranks and hierarchy of the central government or even the military.

A weakened central government that eventually lost its grip on the country and had to share its power with the kings grouped together in the 14th
Dynasty, allowed them to create their own power base and, at one point, to claim kingship over a part of the country. Alliances with local
governors then may have allowed them to strengthen their grip on the country until they appear to have controlled the entire country.

The Hyksos' power base appears to have been located in the southeast of the Nile Delta, in a city named Avaris. Manetho's claim that they
founded this city may perhaps be correct.

Hyksos rulership did not go totally unchallenged. Several other local potentates, many also of foreign origin, claimed rulership of small parts of
the country, mainly the Nile Delta, and are grouped together in the 16th Dynasty.

The strongest challenge, however, came from an Egyptian house, which ruled over the Theban region and which is known as the 17th Dynasty.
The conflict between both dynasties appears to have started during the reigns of Apophis in Avaris and Seqenenre in Thebes. A 19th Dynasty
story refers to a quarrel between both kings. Despite its obvious fictive nature, it is very likely that this story was based on the memory of a true
conflict between Avaris and Thebes. This may perhaps be confirmed by Seqenenre's mummy, which shows clear marks of a violent death,
perhaps on the battle field.

The conflict between the Hyksos and the Thebans continued during the reign of Kamose, son and successor to Seqenenre, who succeeded in
pushing back the Hyksos to their capital in Avaris. The final blow to Hyksos power in Egypt was delivered to them by Ahmose, the successor of
Kamose and the founder of the 18th Dynasty, who not only conquered the city of Avaris, but who also chased the fleeing Hyksos well into Asia,
thus starting Egypt's "age of empire".

At the end of the 12th dynasty a migration of Seminite  people called "Hyksos" settled down in the Eastern Delta of Egypt after being driven out of
their homeland by a great plague, earthquake and flood. . The Hyksos took over the rule of Egypt in the 17th century BC  and during this period of
time, there was peace and prosperity for Egypt. It is said that they  respected the native religions, maintained ancient Egyptian as the official
language of the government, and allowed many Egyptians to serve in the high levels of the administration of the state. They taught the Egyptians
new military techniques and introduced the use of the horse and chariot, bronze weapons and composite bows.

They had their own gods but never imposed these on the indigenous people and the language in the administration continued to be Egyptian.
The one domestic god they worshipped was - Set or Seth , who they identified to their  their own god of storms. However, the  Hyksos retained  
their worship of Astarte (the Phonecian mother-goddess) and Reshep (a Phoenician storm god). They seem to have adopted Egyptian
manners, laws, and had trade relations with the Minoans and Babylonians. At the same time, the Hyksos living in Egypt have been described as
"Peculiarly Egyptian", but were great builders and artisans.

They were recognized by later Egyptians and listed as legitimate kings, but no tombs from these half a dozen rulers have been found and their
personal names were non-Egyptian.

Egypt came to  benefit considerably from this foreign rule, making it a  stronger country, with a much more viable military.  Until the Hyksos rule ,
the history of Egypt and Asia were mostly isolated, while afterwards, they would be permanently entwined.  The  Hyksos brought to Egypti the  
hump backed Zebu cattle and introduced new vegetable and fruit crops that were cultivated. Improvements in pottery and linen arose  from the
introduction of improved potter's wheels and the vertical loom.

Perhaps one of the greatest contribution of the Hyksos was the preservation of famous Egyptian documents, both literary and scientific. During
the reign of Apophis, the fifth king of the “Great Hyksos,� scribes were commissioned to recopy Egyptian texts so they would not be lost.
One such text was the
Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus. This unique text, dating from about 3000 BC, gives a clear perspective of the human body
as studied by the Egyptians, with details of specific clinical cases, examinations, and prognosis. The
Westcar Papyrus preserved the only
known version of an ancient Egyptian story that may have otherwise been lost. Other restored documents include the
Rhind Mathematical
Papyrus
, the most important mathematical exposition ever found in Egypt.

But it was the diffusion of innovations with more obvious military applications, such as bronze-working, which went far to compensate for the
technological backwardness of Middle Kingdom Egypt, and it was these advantages that eventually allowed the kingdom at Thebes to gain back
control of the Two Lands.

Ancient documents tell of the Hyksos burning buildings and cities to the ground, but I question if one of the reasons for this wasn't for the fact
that during the period of the great migration the lands were suffering from a plague.  The burning of these buildings may have been in an attempt
to cleanse the area of the plague.   As reported, God had smited the land - could this have been a reference to the plague..and could not the
Hyksos also have been affected as well by the plague as the Egyptians?

No hostility seems to have been between the two parts until the last 20 years until a liberation war,  initiated by
Amhose I and completed by
Thutmoses III,  finally wiped out the Hyksos dynasty.

MIDIANITES OF MOSES  - HYKSOS OF EGYPTIANS

According to the Bible, Moses (Hykos)  took the daughter of the Midianite  King as a wife. The five Midianite kings of the five cities were  destroyed
by Moses for their allegiance with the peaceful Moabites. These are the kings Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur and Reba and these are the Hyksos kings
Scheschi, Apopi II, Apopi I, Chian and Jakobher on the Egyptian hieroglyphs as the Hyksos Kings. The Pharaoh Anather is the same as Biblical
Gideon.
The Moabites peaceful character and their many possessions may account for the terror of Moabite King Balak at the approach of the Israelites.
He took rather special means to guard against them. Instead of sending his army out, he first consulted with the leaders of Midian. Moab and
Midian were kin by virtue of their common descent from Terah, Moab through Lot from Haran, and Midian from Abraham by Keturah. Gen. 11:27;
19:37; 25:2
---------------------------------------------------------
The Hyksos  were  enemies of the Hittites who were Indo-European that controlled a  great empire that stretched from Mesopotamia to Syria and
Palestine. The Hittites are shrouded in fog and mystery; we don't where they came from, and for a long time the language they spoke was
undecipherable. There language came from  the Indo-European language family, which included  English, German, Greek, Latin, Persian, and
the languages of India.

Because their empire was so large and because their primary activity was commerce, trading with all the civilizations and peoples of the
Mediterranean, the Hittites were the people primarily responsible for transmitting Mesopotamian thought, law, political structure, economic
structure, and ideas around the Mediterranean, from Egypt to Greece. So the Hittites were  the great traders in the culture built by the Sumerians
and adopted and modified by later peoples. Because of the Hittites, when the Hebrews later migrated to Canaan under Moses they found a
people, the Canaanites, who were, culturally speaking, Mesopotamians.

The Hittites greatly modified the system of law they inherited from the Old Babylonians. The most extensive literature that the Hittites have left us
is, in fact, decrees and laws. These laws were far more merciful than the laws of the Old Babylonians, perhaps because the Hittites were less
concerned about maintaining a rigid, despotic central authority.  They modified the role of the monarch in that they gave the king ownership of all
the land under his control; previously, under the Sumerians and Amorites, private property was allowed and the monarch only owned his own
private property. Individuals were allowed control over land, which belong to the king, only by serving in the king's army. So the bulk of the
population became tenant farmers.

The Hittites adopted many of the gods of the Sumerians and Old Babylonians. They seemed to have recognized that all gods were legitimate
gods. Whenever they conquered a people, they adopted that people's gods into their religious system, in much the same way the uji , or clans, in
early Japan would adopt the gods of rival uji when they had conquered them. As far as history is concerned, this has tremendous consequences
for the history of the Hebrews. The Assyrians seem to have adopted the same tolerance towards other religions, which allowed the Jewish faith
to persist after the Jewish state was decimated by the Assyrians. And the Assyrians seem to have adopted the same tendency to adopt the gods
of conquered people, so the Assyrian conquerors of Palestine adopted the Hebrew god, Yahweh, into their religion. This eventually led to the
only major religious schism in Hebrew history, the schism between Jews and Samaritans.

They was a recognized class of craftsmen especially potters, cobblers, carpenters and smiths, and though metal principally worked was bronze,
the smelting of iron was already understood and a high value was set on this metal. The medium of exchange was silver, of which the Taurus
Mountains contained an abundant supply; however, it is not known how this potential source of wealth was controlled by the Hittite kings. Traces
of metallurgy are found in Hattusas. Textual and material ranging from goldsmiths to shoemakers and to pottery. The Hittite economy was
based on agriculture. The main crops were wheat and barley.  Honey was a significant item in the diet. Domestic livestock consisted of cattle,
sheep, goats, pigs, and perhaps water-buffalo. Donkeys were used as pack animals. They used also dogs as their best friends. Hittites used
cuneiform script on their inscriptions. Also they used the hieroglyph form on some inscription, intended for ordinary people to understand the
contents easily.

The king was supreme ruler, military commander, judicial authority and high priest. Surrounding him was a large class of nobles and dignitaries
who, especially in the earlier centuries, possessed considerable power and were largely related to the king by blood. Throughout, the
government of the most important cities and provinces was assigned by the king to members of his own family, each bounded to him by ties of
homage and fealty. In later centuries, the same principle was extended to native vassal who became members of the royal family by marriage.
The oath of fealty was a personal matter and so it was necessary, on the death of a kind, for all vassal treaties to be renewed by his successor.
This feudal principle was in fact the basis of Hittite society as a whole. The nobles possessed large manors, each with its own peasants and
artisans, who held their tenements on condition of payment of rent in kind or performance of appropriate services. A peasant could leave his
holdings to his son; a craftsman could sell it, with the obligation passing to the buyer; but the lord had the right to choose or approve the new
feudatory and invest him with the obligation.

A notable characteristic of the Hittite state is the prominent part played by women, especially the queen. Pudupepa, wife of Hattusilis III, is
regularly associated with her husband in treaties an documents of the state and she even carried on correspondence with foreign kings and
queens in her own right. Both she and the last queen of Suppiluliumas I remained in office until their husbands' death; thus it is inferred that the
Hilife. There is some reason to believe that a matrilineal system once prevailed in Anatolia and the independent position of the Hittite queen
could be a result of this. The Hittite family was of the normal patriarchal type: the father gave his daughter aqua in marriage; the bridegroom paid
him the bride-price and thereafter took the bride and possessed her; if she was taken in adultery he had the right to decide her fate.

From textual sources it is known that cremation was  the funerary custom of the Hittite kings. The ordinary people  were either buried or
cremated. They honored thousands of gods, but a few of their chief gods were Alalu, the  king in heaven in olden days and Anus  who served as
his cupbearer for 9 years before defeating him and dispatching him to under the earth. Anu (Akkadian in origin) , Kumarbi - 'the father of all gods'
according to the Hurrian , who sometimes
equated with Enlil and Dagan.

Although the Hittite Empire vanished thousands of years ago, it has by no means been forgotten, and its capital Hattusha has been declared a
World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Moreover, an enlarged copy of a cuneiform tablet found here hangs in the United Nations building in New York.
This tablet is a peace treaty concluded after the Battle of Kadesh between the Hittite king Hattusili III and the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II,
demonstrating to modern statesmen that international treaties are a tradition going back to the earliest civilizations.
-----------------------------

The name of  the   Hy (KSOS),  is perhaps retained in the later Russian and Turkish term KAZAK equaling  "COSSACK" who were  definied as
adventurers, raiders and/or, nomadic shepherds.
The HYKSOS were a tribe (or tribes) of nomadic and warlike shepherd peoples (the Kassites, Kaska, Amorites, Aramaeans, Midianites, Syrians,
Palestinians) who spread across Palestine due to the chaos caused by earthquakes and the explosion of Santorin. They took advantage of the
so weakened peoples and governments in the region, and  extended their influence into Egypt, until their expulsion .


----------------------------

AMORITES of the Bible may be the Aramaeans of the scholars - known in Sumerian and Akkadian texts as MAR.TU or AMURRU, who are the
people of MARI
The equation of Aramaean with Amorite is supported by Albright's thesis that Aramaic finds original traces in Mari texts, i.e., Amorite texts. The
description of the Amorites (Aramaeans) fits those of the Kassites. Amorite later becomes Aramaic, the lingua franca of the fertile crescent, and
ARAMAIC becomes ARABIC (through M>B shift. (The Aramaeans are today called Syrians and are related to the Palestinians).
The Aramaeans were known collectively as the KAL.DU or
Chaldeans, and - here is the connection to the Kassites and Hyksos - KAL.DU is also
written as KAS.DU in Babylonian and as KASDIM in Hebrew. In Assyro-Babylonian texts KAS4 means "to vagabond, run freely about" so this
again means "shepherds". The British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt has a good discussion of the Hyksos as Palestinians.



In the
ABSOLUTE CHRONOLOGY OF THE ANCIENT WORLD , based on Astronomy and the Pharaonic Lists of Kings
The
Midianites of Moses are the Hyksos of the Egyptian History and of the15th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt
A review of the Egyptian hieroglyphs shows the following parallels of names.
* There are 5 known Hyksos Kings - and 5 Midianite Kings in the Bible - The Cartouches of the Kings are pictured and explained at
Cartouche

15th Dynasty
Hyksos King Scheschi (Maaibre) is Midianite King EVI
Hyksos King Jakobher (Meruserre) is Midianite King REBA
Hyksos King Chian (Sueserenre) is Midianite King HUR
Hyksos King Apopi I (Auserre) is Midianite King ZUR
Hyksos King Apopi II (Aqenenre) is Midianite King REKEM

16th Dynasty
The "King" Anather is the Biblical Judge GIDEON (Jerubboseth) and his name points to his leadership in the founding of New Salem, i.e. New
Jerusalem
see the cartouches.
In other words, Jerusalem was founded after the outbreak of the volcano Santorin on Thera which must have destroyed the old city.
The "King" Jakbam is Gideon´s son ABIMELECH (Jephtah).
There is no cartouche around the names because, as the Bible reports, Gideon refused kingship.

17th Dynasty in Thebes
The King SOBEKEMSAF II (Sechemre Schedtaui) is MOSES
The King ANTEF VII (Nubcheperre) is AARON (Aron Haberit)
The King TA´A I. is ELEASAR
The King TA´A II. is Seqenenre = NUN who was killed by the Philestines (Palestianians) who then took the ark.
The King Kamose is HO-PHNIS, identical to PINEHAS

18th Dynasty
The Pharaoh AHMOSE is JOSHUA
QUEEN HATSCHEPSUT is Biblical DEBORAH
THUTMOSIS is BARAK
(Barak is the perch of the Bird - Akkadian)

MOSES
According to Artapanus, Moses was born circa 1708 BC
At the age of 40, before Exodus, Moses first fled [ca. 1667 BC] from Egypt and sought refuge among the Midianites (2 Moses 2, 15) who - on the
basis of Egyptian Hieroglyphs - were none other than the Hyksos, which the British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt describes as follows (p.
136):
HYKSOS:  "...a Palestinian group...who migrated into Egypt during the late Middle Kingdom (c. 1800-1650 BC) and rose to power in Lower Egypt
during the Second Intermediate Period (1650-1550 BC)."
MIDIANITES (also called ISHMAELITES, Enc. Brit.):
The Lion Handbook of the Bible notes that the Midianites "were descendants of Abraham through his second wife, Keturah."
(1 Moses 25,2 and 1 Chronicles 1,32) Abraham had sent all the sons of Keturah into the desert. As noted in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, "they
engaged in pastoral pursuits, caravan trading and banditry... Jethro, priest-leader of the Midianite subtribe the Kenites, and his daughter
Zipporah (a wife of Moses), influenced early Hebrew thought: it was Yahweh, the lord of the Midianites, who was revealed to Moses as the God of
the Hebrews."
MOSES AND THE MIDIANITES
Moses took Zipporah as his wife and the priest Jethro became his father-in-law. In spite of this, because of the alliance of the Kenites with the
Moabites in the days of Exodus, Moses ordered his people to handle the Midianites as enemies because of ther idolatry (4 Moses 22, 4-7, 5
Moses 16-18) and indeed their five kings Evi, Rekem, Zur Hur and Reba (5 Moses 8) and all their cities were burned to the ground (5 Moses 10).
Tell el-Daba  (Auris)  As noted in the Chronicle of the Pharaohs by Peter A. Clayton, newest excavations clearly indicate that the cities in the
northeastern Nile Delta were completely destroyed at the end of the Hyksos period.

The Hapiru were Arabs
The period of Kassite (Amorite) rule is a dark age in the fertile crescent, during which the Amorite language became dominant in Syria and
Palestine - and is retained down to this day as Arabic. These Amorites are surely the Habiru or Hapiru of history (the "correct" transcription is ha-
ru-bi or ha-ru-pi i.e. "the shepherd people" or ARABs). Indeed, as noted in the Lion Handbook to the Bible "during most of the 1st millennium BC
(by current chronology), the Arabians appear mainly as raiders

BIBLICAL JOSEPH
In the story of Joseph,  there was a famine in Canaan which forced a small wandering band of seventy Hebrews, or "Habirus", under the
leadership of Joseph, to settled near the mouth of the Nile River. They were welcomed by their cousins, the Hykos, and Joseph was accepted
into their royal court.


Yuya-Joseph
(Yu-ya - Alalu-Ea)
Biblical Joseph  - Egyptian Prime Minister during 1400 BC
Married to Thuya
Egyptian  and King  Ben-Hadad I
Father of Tiy. Yuya's blonde hair and Caucasian facial struture have been well preserved by the embalming process.
Yuya bore the prestigious title of "Father of God [Pharaoh]"meaning pharaoh's 'father-in-law'.
Was  priest of both Hermonthis and Amon during his career.
The name "Yu-ya" is essentially identical with the name of God given to Moses from the burning bus
h

The first Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty  and the Rise of the God AMUN
AhmoseI  - The Warrior King Joshua


The first king of the New Kingdom, Ahmose came from a line of Theban rulers (17th Dynasty).  Following the death of his brother, Kamose
Ahmose then became head of the Theban royal line.   Son of Seqenenre-Tao II and Queen Ahhotep., Ahmose was roughly ten years old, when
he became head of the Theban royal line, after the death of his brother, Kamose Ahmose. His mother  Ahhotep became co-regent with him  and  
in year 16 or his reign he overthrew the Hykos and took reign over the land of Egypt of which they held for approximately 100 years .
Ahmose I slowly drove the Hyksos back to their capital Avaris (location on one of the eastern branches of the Nile in Lower Egypt), once here
Ahmose laid siege to the city. Ahmose had troubles of his own with his kingdom, he left the siege of Avaris in the control of his military
commanders so that he was free to placate a rebellion in the Theban region. When Ahmose returned to Avaris he found that negotiations had
been taking place between the Hyksos and his military commanders ­ the Hyksos were allowed to leave Egypt gracefully in return for
surrendering the city .
Ahmose also honoured his god for the many victories Ahmose had won - he endowed the temple of his capital city with many gifts, this act was
to set a precedent for future kings of Egypt, one which began the rise of Amun over all other gods of Egypt and the beginning of the Great Mystery
Schools.

The Great Mysteries Schools - White Brotherhood and the Free Masons  -
Continued on Next Page
Old Hyksos Language
Old Hyksos is the native
language of the dragon
population of Lamutria,
Heraldinia and the Mist
Countries.
It is also the language used by
mages to build their spells.

The language has a small
vocabulary, a mere twenty-four
words. There are three suffixes
that change the meaning of
those twenty-four words. In
addition, negation of a word
often produces a distinct
meaning. For instance, while
cepra means 'animal', ne
cepra means 'plant.'
As Old Hyksos is used by
mages, the lexicon is graded.
There are fifteen degrees,
ranging from the third pupil
who knows a handful of words
to the first archmage who
knows all and can build
permanent pentangles, the Old
Hyksos equivalent of poetry.
The appropriate level is
indicated in the - alphabetic -
lexicon.
The hieroglyph , read from right to left
reads M-S ZVAIGZ-nes [Zvaigznes
="stars"] which is Moshe, "Star Priest"
[of Thebes]*
Bust of Moses and His Hieroglpyhic Name
Today, the "Statue" of Moses
above - in black diorite - (A
black soft stone perferred by
sculptures of the time).
is in the Museum of Art History
in Vienna but the base
and feet are in the National
Museum of Ireland in Dublin.

It is the statue of a man whose
hieroglyphic name
is transcribed - erroneously -
by Egyptologists as
Sobek-em-s-af.
This is Sechemre Schedtaui -
also erroneously transcribed ,
the 1st King of Thebes of the
17th Dynasty,
a reign dated by current
chronology to ca. 1650-1600
B.C.
MOSES and the tale of ARTAPANUS
(See David Rohl's book, A Test of Time, Random House, London, 1995)

MOSES WAS BORN - writes Artapanus - in the reign of Chaneferre (Khenephres), known as
Sobekhotep IV, who, even by current chronology, ruled ca. 1700 B.C.

Clemens' Stromata summarizes the writings of Artapanus, a Jewish historian who wrote Peri Iodaion.
Artapanus is named by Eusebius in his Evangelicae Preparationis and his detailed account of the life
of Moses is reported in his Pamphilis, Book 9, Ch. 27, 1-37.

That life story of MOSES agrees with the Egyptian "SINUHE Story" - which originated in the Pharaonic
12th Dynasty (!) at the time of A-MEN-EM-HET III.

It is about a young man who flees Egypt (as does Moses), goes to Palestine (as does Moses),
where Sinuhe finds the support of Prince Retenju just as Moses finds the help of "Raguel" in
Artapanus, and of "Reguel" viz. "Jitro" in the Biblical Exodus (2,18; 3,1;4,18; 18,1).

The Pharaoh who first "enslaved" the Hebrews, says Artapanus, was called PAL-MEN-O-THES and
had a city and temple built at "Kessan" (as Rohl correctly notes, "Kes" in the eastern Delta)
called "Kessan" in the Septuagint and "Goshen" in the Masora,  which is generally equated with On,
Heliopolis or Egyptian Iunu.

The statue of Moses (Sebekemsaf) was found at Armant, (Ar-Mant is related to Iunu-Month)
which was greatly developed in the 12th dynasty.

Pharaoh PAL-MEN-O-THIS is surely the same as A-MEN-E(M)-HET(is) III out of that very same 12th
dynasty. The first syllable has simply been mistranscribed by Egyptologists or Greeks.

It was during the 12th dynasty that territorial expansion against Kush and Nubia reached its peak, and
the story of Moses tells us that he also campaigned against Nubia and Ethiopia in his youth.
Ahmose
was buried near Dra
Abu el-Naga in the
Theben necropolis.
Exploring the Unknown   with
Mary Sutherland
CONTACT US TODAY
Brad and Mary Sutherland
248 Carver Street
Winslow, Illinois 61089
815 367 1006
The staff of Moses displayed at Birmingham Museum
THE PARTING OF THE RED SEA AND
MOSES: by Mary Sutherland

THE PARTING OF THE RED SEA and
MOSES may have been "off-world"
technology. In my book,
Giants Gods and
Lost Races, I show two separate accounts of
a piece held in the hands that had the ability
to separate the sea and then pull it back on
itself again. The Mormons called it the 'Prime
Directive".
The “Su-Dasa’s Battle Hymn of Victory” over
the Ten Confederate Kings begins with
“Indra” splitting the flooded Parushni River
(Euphrates) allowing Su-Dasa and his
people to cross. Indra then drowned the
enemy with the returning waters.
This is strikingly similar to the account of his
the God of Moses parting the Red Sea.
However both events could have happened
when it comes to the parting of the sea.
While going through my notes for this book, I
found a file I had that may shed a new
possible light on the “Parting of the Sea”
Written in 1554, the Guatemalan Titulo de
Totonicapán documents the arrival of the U
Mamae (ancients). According to their history,
the U Mamae came from the other part of the
sea and claimed to have been descendants
of Abraham and Jacob. When they left, the
great father Nacxit gave the chief a present of
which Nacxit called “Giron-Gagal”. According
to their accounts, “When they arrived at the
edge of the sea, the first leader Balam-Quitze
touched the ‘sacred director’ with his staff
and at once a passageway opened and then
closed up again.
The Unknown and Untold Stories of Moses,
Compiled and Written by Mary Sutherland