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Up to this point, people had assumed that gravity - together with the electromagnetic, strong and weak gauge forces - lives everywhere
in 10-D space-time. However, a new possibility was brought to light in 1998 by Nima Arkani-Hamed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator
Center in California, Savas Dimopoulos of Stanford University and Gia Dvali of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in
Trieste, Italy. They asked a rather general question:
"Could gravity be the only force that is aware of extra dimensions? And if so, how large could the extra dimensions be?"

Figure 3
If this were the case, the world would look as shown in figure 3. The electromagnetic, weak and strong forces, as well as all the matter in
the universe, would be trapped on a surface with three spatial dimensions, like dust particles on soap bubbles. Only gravitons would be
able to leave the surface and move throughout the full volume. This 3-D surface is known as a "brane" ( a name derived from
membrane, the 2-D equivalent)

If the strong, electromagnetic and weak gauge forces are trapped on a brane, the answer to how large the "gravity-only" extra
dimensions could be is surprising.

Since we do not
see extra dimensions in everyday life, we naturally assume that they must be tiny. However, our everyday experiences
are prejudiced by electromagnetism, which is trapped on the brane. Meanwhile, the highest energy particle accelerators extend our
range of sight to include the weak and strong forces down to small scales, around 10-15 mm.
Therefore -  most are blissfully unaware of
any extra dimensions.

The only force science can use to probe the gravity-only extra dimensions is gravity itself - but unfortunately they have almost no
knowledge of gravity at distances less than about a millimetre. Hence, science has to admit that 1 mm objects could be gravitating in five
or more dimensions.

However, they
do know that the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces cannot be modified at distances larger than about 10-15 mm
which promted the  suggestion ,by  Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos and Dvali , that "
Forces (such as us and all other 3d objects)  might be
trapped on a brane that has three spatial dimensions large enough to incorporate the entire visible universe, yet with a  a "thickness" of
-  at the most  - 10-15 mm in the extra-dimensional world.

The electromagnetic, weak and strong forces seem to be  trapped within the 3-D brane, and  are not aware of the extra dimension - thus
maintaining their usual behavior.

Gravity, on the other hand, seems to be aware of the other dimensions and behaves differently. If we approach a massive body closer
than a distance
L, we would feel the effects of a force law in four spatial dimensions rather than three. In this case, the gravitons from
the massive body are spread over a 4-D sphere with radius
r, the surface area of which grows as r3. We would then find that the
gravitational force follows a 1/r3 law.

Figure 4
However, as we move further away from the body (i.e. r > L) the usual 1/r2 behaviour is restored. The reason for this is as follows.
Adding a compactified extra dimension is rather like standing between two mirrors; we see images of ourselves stretching to infinity. In
the Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali picture the same is true, except the images of the original brane are spaced every L apart and are
only "seen" by the gravitational force (see figure 4).

Now consider the gravitational force coming from a massive body trapped in the brane. If we are much further away than L, then we are
gravitationally attracted by the original body plus all its mirror images.

When we are at a distance r > L along the brane from the original body, the gravitons from it and its infinite line of mirror images are
spread out evenly over a 4-D "cylinder" of radius r, and the gravitational force follows the usual 1/r2 behaviour.
However, as a result of
the initial higher-dimensional spreading, the force of gravity is much weaker than it would otherwise be.

In other words, the only reason the gravitational force appears to be so weak could be because it is diluted by the extra dimensions.

This aspect of the world-as-a-brane scenario particularly interested Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos and Dvali precisely because it
reformulated the question of why gravity is so much weaker than the other forces (or equivalently, why the Planck energy of 1019 GeV is
so much larger than the energy scale of weak interactions, around 1000 GeV).

In this picture, Newton's constant is a derived quantity that depends on the volume of the extra dimensions. When viewed from the
higher-dimensional space, known as the "bulk", there might be only one fundamental scale. The most radical suggestion lowers the
fundamental scale of gravity to the weak energy scale, about 1000 GeV. This assumption leads to an estimate for the size of the extra
dimensions in terms of their number, with higher numbers of extra dimensions implying smaller compactification scales.

If there is only one extra dimension then it turns out that it must be larger than the solar system and this possibility can be safely
excluded. Two extra dimensions, on the other hand, give a compactification scale of roughly 1 mm, which is close to the current
experimental limit. This experimental possibility is one of the most exciting aspects of the world-as-a-brane picture. Suddenly, from
believing that a theory of quantum gravity would for ever be beyond the reach of experiments, it seemed as if we might be able to test
the theory in tabletop experiments. Such experiments might show the usual Newtonian 1/r2 force law switch to a 1/r4 law, which would
characterize two extra dimensions.

The theoretical constructs necessary for the brane-world picture mirrored the developments that had been independently taking place in
string theory. One aspect of these developments was the mathematical discovery that extended objects of various dimensionalities are
integral to string theory. There turned out to be many well defined examples of such objects, generically called p-branes, where p is the
number of spatial dimensions of the object. For example, a 0-brane is similar to a normal point-like particle, a 1-brane is like a string, a
2-brane resembles a membrane, and so on.
Our 3D World
and  Us.
Gravitons -
Spirit/Mental  Energy
" Most of us are blissfully
unaware of the other
dimensions that we share"
" The Electromagnet, weak
and strong forces seem to
be trapped within the 3 D
brane, and are not aware of
the extra dimension - thus
maintaining their usual
Figure Four
Figure Four
Figure Four
Figure Four
Mary Sutherland is the author of the following books
  • Living in the Light: Believe in the Magic
  • Mysteries: Exploring the Mysteries of Burlington and Southeastern Wisconsin
  • Revelations: Truths Revealed
  • In Search of Ancient Man: Lost in Time
  • The Red Haired Giants
  • Haunted Burlington Wisconsin

Check Out Books Written by Mary Sutherland  She is also the creator of
BURLINGTON NEWS one of the largest and most popular websites on the world
wide web.
Exploring the Unknown   
Mary Sutherland
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Listen to all our Shows by Mary Sutherland
Mary Sutherland is an author and researcher focusing her work
on consciousness studies, ancient history and unusual
phenomena. She is a "hands on" researcher and the creator of
one of the largest website on the internet with hundreds of
pages providing information on the paranormal, UFOs, ancient
races and their cultures, sacred sites and power points of the
world, underground tunnels and cave systems, dimensional
worlds , metaphysics, etc. The governor of Kentucky
commissioned her as a ‘Kentucky Colonel” for her work on the
ancient sites of Kentucky. For the last 5 years, she has been
exploring, mapping and documenting the ancient underwater
structures of Rock Lake – near Aztalan. For the last fourteen
years she has been documenting the ancient sites around
Burlington, WI. Truth is her passion. She believes it is through
truth that we will break ourselves free of our present
entanglements in life. When we become free, we will create our
own ‘personal story’ of the ‘hero’s journey’ suggested by Joseph

Brad and Mary Sutherland
248 Carver Street
Winslow, Illinois 61089
815 367 1006
“There are rare persons in this world who see things others
don’t; persons who connect the dots of existence and
possess an instinctive talent for linking with kindred souls to
reveal otherwise invisible patterns and excavate hidden
truths. Such a person is Mary Sutherland. She is a natural-
born networker in all she does --- from her Burlington
Vortex Conferences and Sci’Fi Café to her public talks and
published books. Nowhere, however, is her gift for
perception more developed than in her latest title.“  Frank
Joseph .
Joseph was nominated by Japan's Savant Society as
Professor of World Archaeology. He was editor-in-chief of
Ancient American Magazine from 1993 to 2007 and has
traveled the world collecting research materials for his
twenty-seven published books.
"Mary Sutherland is not simply a reporter of all these phenomena;
she lives them! As readers expect, her studies extend beyond her
own experiences. The author and investigator often takes visitors
on tours containing an inter-dimensional vortex and hosts yearly
conferences and meet ups with many well known speakers on
anomalous phenomena."
What differentiates her book. Haunted Burlington Wisconsin , is that
Sutherland includes her explanations of the unknown realms and
phenomena with tips for heightening the reader's own psychic
awareness. Readers who complete this dizzying journey may find
they can no longer look at Burlington in exactly the same way.
Perhaps, then, this book itself may be considered a vortex. and
whether or not it actually transports you to another place, it will
certainly draw you in."
Linda Godfrey , award winning author on strange creatures, people
and places. She has been featured guest on dozens of nation TV
and radio shows, including Monsterquest, Sean Hannity's America,
Lost Tapes, Inside Edition, Sy-fy's Haunted Highway, Monsters and
Mysteries, Coast to Coast...and the list goes on!