Red Haired Mummies of Egypt

Mary Sutherland Copyright 2003 - 2004 -2005
Author of Living in the Light 'Believe in the Magic'
Researcher of Ancient Man
BUFO Paranormal and UFO Radio
Burlington UFO and Paranormal Research Center
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red haired mummies  red haired mummies  red haired mummies  red haired mummies   red haired mummies
A well preserved body from
the pre-dynastic period in
Egypt, circa 3,300 BC.
Buried in a sand grave, the
natural dryness of the
surroundings kept the body
preserved. His red hair  have
been so well preserved that
he has been given the
nickname "Ginger" at the
British Museum where he is
kept on public display.
Right: "Ginger's" head.
Queen Hetop-Heres II,
of the Fourth Dynasty,
the daughter of Cheops,
the builder of the great
pyramid, is shown in
the colored bas reliefs of
her tomb to have been a
distinct blonde. Her hair
is painted a bright
yellow stippled with
little red horizontal
lines, and her skin is
white. (‘The Races of
Europe’, Carleton
Stevens Coon, New
York City, Macmillan.
1939, p.98)
The Law Code of Hammurabi, 1750 BC. The code has been preserved intact on this stela, now in the Louvre
Museum in Paris. At the top of the stela is picture of the king before Shamash, the (typically
Indo-European) sun-god, who was also the god of justice. The introduction to the code is directly below the
pictures, in which Hammurabi asserts that he has come to rule over the "dark haired people". The 282 laws
cover such things as offenses against other people and property; disputes concerning land, trade, fees,
professional services and family. Some of the punishments would be considered harsh by modern standards,
but on the whole the laws present a picture of a well ordered society which lived by recognized standards
and offered protection to all its citizens. Alongside is a detail from the stela showing the great Nordic King
Hammurabi in profile. His racial features are clear in this depiction made during his lifetime.
King Hammurabi has become most famous for his Code of Laws, dating from 1750 BC, which is widely but
incorrectly held to be the first written legal code in the world (it was the second, the first being the code
drawn up by the earlier White Sumerians). Hammurabi's Code of Law was engraved in stone and set up in
the great cities of the region - to this day the Code is regarded as the father of the all legal codes of the world.
While some of the laws themselves seem harsh to the modern mind (death for being unable to repay debt, for
example) nonetheless the wording of the prologue to Hammurabi's Law Code provides a fascinating glimpse
into the conflict between the Semitic and Indo-European populations in the region.
In the prologue, Hammurabi announces that he has come to "rule the black haired people"; he is also referred
to as "the White King" and the "White Potent", obviously in reference to his coloring.
The original introduction on the Hammurabi Code, which was engraved in stone and is still existent, reads as
follows :
"Hammurabi, the exalted prince, who feared God, to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to
destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak; so that I should rule
over the black-headed people like Shamash, and enlighten the land, to further the well-being of mankind..."
"Hammurabi, the prince, called of Bel am I, making riches and increase,...who enriched Ur;...the white
king,...the mighty, who again laid the foundations of Sippara...the lord who granted new life to Uruk, who
brought plenteous water to its inhabitants...the White, Potent, who penetrated the secret cave of the bandits

Racially speaking, the inhabitants of Egypt at this period in time were divided into three groups. Skeletal
evidence from grave sites show that the original White Mediterraneans and Proto-Nordics were in a majority
in the area - a well preserved body found in a sand grave in Egypt dating from approximately 3000 BC, on
display in the British Museum in London, has even been nicknamed "Ginger" because of his red hair - (See
Above Photo)
Syrian and Hittite Prisoners in the tomb, south wall of the second court, circa
1325 BC. The Egyptians took care to portray their enemies as accurately as
they could: On the left, a pair of Indo-European Hittites, and on the right,
Semitics from Syria.
The mummy  of Ramses III was so
unattractive that he became the model
for Boris Karloff's characterisation in
the film 'The Mummy'
The mummy of the red
haired Egyptian King,
Ramses II, is on public
display at the Egyptian
Museum, Cairo
Forensics tests were done
on Ramses, proving that
his red hair was 'natural'.
Ref: Ramses the Great by
National Geographics.

Egypt's last display of national vigor came with the red haired Pharaoh Ramses II
(1292 - 1225 BC). Ramses II managed to re-establish the already decaying
Egyptian Empire by recapturing much land in Nubia.

He also fought a series of battles against invading Indo-Europeans, the Hittites.
This was culminated with the battle of Kadesh in northern Syria. Ramses signed a
treaty with the Hittites in 1258 BC, which ended the war. In terms of the treaty,
Ramses took as his wife an Indo-European Hittite princess. His other
achievements included the building of the rock-hewn temple of Abu Simbel, the
great hall in the Temple of Amon at Karnak, and the mortuary temple at Thebes.

After this king, Egypt entered into a steady period of decay, caused directly by
the elimination of the original Egyptians, and their replacement with a mixed
population made up of Black, Semitic and the remnant White population. This
racially divergent nation was never again to reach the heights achieved by the First,
Second or the first part of the Third Kingdoms. In these later years there were
competing claimants to the pharaohs throne, many of whom, racially speaking,
bore no resemblance to the original pharaohs at all.
The mummy of Pharaoh Seti I is the most lifelike of the great pharaohs of Egypt, and a tribute to the embalmer's art. His
caucasian features remain crystal clear and because of the excellent preservation process, Seti's mummy can easily be
compared with a relief of his face made in his lifetime at the Temple at Abydos. Seti was the son of the great Ramses I,
and became pharaoh in 1320 BC. He reoccupied lands in Syria lost to earlier Syrian invasions, conquered Palestine and
conducted campaigns against the Semitic Libyans and the Indo-European Hittites
This is one of the finest statues of Thutmosis III,
on the picture. This statue of basalt is kept in the
Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Perhaps it has the
actual size, it is about five feet tall - corresponding
the ancient Egyptian average. It has nicely formed
muscular structure, counterpointed by a face
which has a hint of discord. It is not disturbing,
but proves that the statue is strongly idealized.
His benevolent look and nice smile are overruled
by his strong nose, but his chin is definitely small.
Since the statue had to resemble, these characters
could not be changed.
After the death of Solomon, Sheba was
assassinated and evidence of her existence
deliberated destroyed by Thutmossis III. We are
lucky to have any thing left of this time in history.
Portrait of
Tuthmosis I from
his daughter's
temple at Deir
(Tuthmosis II)   
The mummy of
Tuthmosis II was found
at Deir el-Bahri in a
replacement coffin (the
original owner is
unknown) covered in
the remains of his
original wrappings.
Tuthmosis II was a frail,
rather weak-looking
individual,.X-rays have tended
confirm that Tuthmosis II died
when he was around 30.
(Tuthmosis IV)
Tuthmosis IV was
x-rayed again in the
1970s, it was possible
to more accurately
evaluate his age at
around 35 years old,
which accords well
with the historical
record, which
indicates that
Tuthmosis IV must
have been around
40-46 when he died.
Were the patriarchs and the Egyptian Pharaohs the Same?
History describes them as a darker race, but in truth they were
Caucasian .

In the study of Egyptian Kingdoms things can get quite confusing. For example the
reigns of the early New Kingdom pharaohs  Tao II, Kamose, Ahmose, Amenhotep I,
Thutmose I and Thutmose II were not sequential, but overlapped substantially. many
names were given to one individual and several nations could claim the pharaoh as their
own under another title, ie. King, Emperor, etc.

Abraham was Thutmose. Thutmose is a compound name coprised of thus (From Thoth,
the Egyptian God of Wisdom) and Mose (an Egyptian title or suffix indicating son or
rightful heir) .
Egyptian Female Pharaoh: Queen Hatshepsut, wife of Pharaoh Thutmosis II. She ruled
Egypt after Thutmosis' death in 1520 BC. Her long blonde hair and  facial structure has
been well preserved by the embalming process of the time

Genesis Patriarch Lamech (First line of Adam) is Thoth (Seth)whom murdered Osiris.
In biblical history we show Lamech as blind and murdered Patriarch Mehujael

The myths and legends of Greece, India and South America describe the rule of Osiris
and Isis. '
The Mighty Osiris and Isis walked into the Egyptian Valley out of nowhere and
assumed command.'
They were taller and more imposing than the men of the time, with long blond hair,
marblelike white skin and remarkable powers that enabled them to perform miracles.

Abraham was shown to be the faithful elder half-brother of both Tao II and Thutmose I
(Mose=Son, Thut=Thoth).

In Genesis 14, Abraham is given the pseudonym of Shem-eber king of Zeboiim
(Memphis). Shemeber is translated as "Illustrious." However, it is also a compound
name comprised of Shem (Sabium) and Eber (Hammurabi). These two ancestors were
not only kings, but also masters of the sciences, law and philosophy . Abraham was
placed in their company, not only with respect to wisdom, but also in kingship.
Zeboiim, that is Memphis, was the ancient seat of kingship and wisdom in Egypt. (Ref:
Living in Truth: Archaeology and the Patriarchs by Charles N. Pope)

ThutmoseIV According to legend, nearly three and a half thousand years ago, one of the
sons of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenophis II was out hunting near a plateau some ten
miles from Cairo. Tired from his endeavours, the Prince Thutmose rested in the shadow
of a mysterious head protruding from the desert sands.

Thutmose duly fell asleep and, in a dream, heard the carved stone head whispering to
him that one day he would become ruler of all Egypt ahead of his older brothers. The
prince was also told that he would then free the body of the forgotten god from the
desert sands where it had lain buried for centuries. Thutmose awoke refreshed, and,
recalling the dream silently committed himself to clearing away the sands, intrigued that
as a younger son, he could possibly become Pharaoh. He then left to continue his

On the death of his father the prophecy become true, with the former hunter ascending
the throne as Pharaoh Tuthmosis IV. Shortly afterwards the Pharaoh, who was only to
reign for eight years (1413-1405BCE), honoured the pledge made as a younger man and
cleared the area around the Sphinx revealing the God in its true magnificence
Thutmose IV and Joseph (YUYA)
Ahmed Osman proved that the identity of Biblical Joseph was that of Prime Minister
Yuya in the Egyptian New Kingdom.  *An ancestor of Yuya in the Egyptian Middle
Kingdom served as his role model.  This earlier member of Yuya's family had a similar
name and held an identical office to his own.  Working backwards from the time of Yuya
in the Egyptian 18th Dynasty, the identity of the first Joseph can be found among the
great princes of the 12th Dynasty
Ahmed Osman reveals that when Joseph revealed his identity to his kinsmen who had
sold him into slavery, he told them that "God had made him 'A father to Pharaoh'.
Throughout the long history of ancient Egypt, only one man is known to have been
given the title 'A father to Pharoah' - Yuya, a vizier of the eighteenth dynasty King
Tuthmosis IV.
Yuya has long intrigued Egyptologists because he was buried in the Valley of Kings
even though he was not a member of the Royal House.
Akhnaten was titled the 'heretic' king being that it was him and his mother Queen Tiy
which created the rise of monotheism in Egypt. During his reign, the Pharaoh Akhenaten
was able to abolish the complex pantheon of the ancient Egyptian religion and replace it
with a single god, the Aten, who had no image or form.
Pharaoh Akhenaten's Hymn to Aten is  the same as Psalm 104 of the Bible.

Horemheb may have been the oppressor king in the Book of Exodus. The time of
departure of the Hebrews from Egypt would have been during the short reign of Ramses
I, the first king of the nineteenth dynasty.

Pharoah THUTMOSE III.. Egyptian ancient writings show: "One winter
morning around the year 1,482 B.C. Thutmose III first saw a 'UFO'....
Described as; " a CIRCLE of FIRE", emitted no sound, it had no voice',
according to inscriptions. After some days had passed, these things became
more numerous in the skies than ever. "Were extremely bright or
more...than the brightness of the sun, and were relatively small about 16' in
diamater. Thutmose III was taken aboard and flew up to the sky and
learned the secrets of Heaven

".....among the papers of the late Professor Alberto Tulli, former Director
of the Egyptian section of the Vatican Museum. It is a fragment from the
Royal Annals of Thuthmosis III (circa 1504-1450 B.C.) and when translated
reads as follows:

" 'In the year 22 third month of winter, sixth hour of the day...the scribes of
the House of Life found it was a circle of fire that was coming in the sky
(Though) it had no head, the breadth of its mouth (had) a foul odour. It's
body one rod long (about 150 feet) and one rod large, It had no voice...Now,
after some days had passed over these things, Lo! they were more numerous
than anything. They were shining in the sky more than the sun to the
limits of...heaven...Powerful was the position of the fire circles. The army of
the king looked on and His Majesty was in the midst of it. It was after
supper. Thereupon, they (the fire circles) went up higher directed towards
the South.'
Egyptian Moses=Son of
The Exodus Moses would
then mean Son of Solomon

There were the blue-bloods of Ancient Times which extended into European
Times. . They actually did have blue blood, and it was not hemoglobin based
but copper based. They were semi-human. There are still to this day, some
animal species in South America that have copper based blood systems.
There was a problem with hemophilia, and not because of intermarrying.
The problem was that they started to marry outside of the copper based
blood system. Hemoglobin and copper systems don't mix. That's where the
laws against marrying commoners originated.
Lobsters, octopuses, squids and horseshoe crabs have copper based blue blood
Professor P. F. Ceccaldi, with a research team, studied some hairs from the
mummy's scalp. Ramesses II was thought to be 87 years-old when he died, and his
hair had turned white. Ceccaldi determined that the reddish-yellow color of the hair
was due to a dye with a dilute henna solution. Many Egyptians dyed their hair,
and this personal habit was preserved by the embalmers. However, traces of the
hair's original color remained in the roots. Microscopic examinations showed that
the hair roots contained natural red pigments, and that therefore, during his younger
days, Ramesses II had been a red head. Analysis concluded that these red pigments
did not result from the hair somehow fading, or otherwise being altered after death,
but did represent Ramesses' natural hair color. Ceccaldi also studied the
cross-section of the hairs, and determined from their oval shape, that Ramesses had
been "cymotrich" (wavy-haired). Finally, he stated that such a combination of
features showed that Ramesses had been a "leucoderm" (white-skinned person).

From the Royal Tombs of UR.
Giant gold headress of Queen
Puabi. This Gold headress is
three times the size of a
'normal' human head.
Queen Tiy (Taia,Tyre)
Father was Yuya
Mother Thuya
Mother and wife of
Akhenaten (Pharaoh
Priestess of the God
Amun AmenhotepIII
who was the father of
Aye whom replaced
Tutankhamun after his
The most brilliant and
famous of Egypt's
queens in 18th Dynasty
This statue was found in
the Temple of Hathor
near the turquoise mines.
Yuya-(Joseph II)
Biblical Joseph  Egyptian
Prime Minister during
1400 BC.
Father of Tiy. Yuya's
blonde hair and Caucasian
facial struture have been
well preserved by the
embalming process.
Thuya, Wife of Yuya.
Equally blonde and caucasian. She was the great
grandmother of Tutankhamen.
Mother of Tiy
Egyptian Female Pharaoh:
Queen Hatshepsut, wife
of Pharaoh Thutmosis II.
She ruled Egypt after
Thutmosis' death in 1520
BC. Her long blonde hair
and  facial structure has
been well preserved by
the embalming process of
the time
The Exodus

The Gospel According to Egypt
Epitome of Ahmed Osman's books:
Stranger in the Valley of the Kings
Moses: Pharaoh of Egypt
House of the Messiah

Aye succeeded Tutankhamun as Pharaoh, but ruled only a few years before he too mysteriously disappeared.(1) The army commander, Horemheb,
married a surviving heiress (believed to be Mutnodjme, a sister of Nefertiti) of the royal line and became Pharaoh in his place.(2) It was during
Horemheb's reign that Ramses was appointed commander of the Egyptian army. Ramses had formerly been the mayor of Zarw, and upon his
appointment as army commander, he began to expand the fortress city of Zarw which was renamed Pi-Ramses (the House of Ramses) in his own
honor.(3) Renewed building at Zarw was later inititated by Ramses II.

When Horemheb died without heir and was succeeded by Ramses, the Egyptian 18th Dynasty came to an end. In the Sinai desert, at the location
known as Mount Sarabit, there are the remains of an ancient Egyptian temple. It was here that the archaeologist Flinders Petrie found an exquisite
statue of Akhenaten's mother, Queen Tiye.(4) It was also here that a stele set up by Pharaoh Ramses I was found which declared that the Aten and all
its dominion were now under his rule.(5) What more logical location would there be for such a stele than at the very spot where Akhenaten (Moses)
would have spent much of his time in exile? What other reason would Ramses have had to place this monument in such a remote area?

Osman deduces that if Akhenaten were still living, Ramses I, the erstwhile underling of Akhenaten, would not have been allowed to make such a bold
proclamation, or to ascend to the throne without a challenge. The description of Moses' return from the wilderness, found both in the Bible and the
Koran, includes appeals which would have been used by Akhenaten to convince the elders of Egypt that he was indeed the exiled Pharaoh and should
as the only remaining Thutmosid be duly reinstated as king.(6)

Despite the former glories of the 18th Dynasty, Akhenaten was not welcomed back. Ramses had already taken firm control over both the military and
the government of Egypt. Akhenaten was forced once again to leave Egypt. Perhaps, as the Bible describes, Akhenaten and the rest of his "chosen"
ones who had not accompanied him into exile, would have been sent away with due respect and with rich gifts (Exodus 12:35-36), but nonetheless
they were sent away. As the Book of Psalms records, at this final departure of Moses and his followers, Egypt was truly glad (Psalm 105:38), for in
their minds, the reign of Akhenaten was a mistake, and the reason Egypt had been so severely afflicted by plague. In the 19th Dynasty Akhenaten,
Semenkhare, Tutankhamun and Aye were excised from the king lists. They were considered to have never ruled and the lengths of their reigns were
added to that of Horemheb's!

The reign of Ramses I lasted only one full year, and correlates well with the death of the Pharaoh during the Exodus as described by the Bible.(7)
Josephus, quoting Manetho, states that those responsible for Egypt's 13 years of trouble were attacked by "Rampses" and driven out of Egypt.(8) At
the time of the death of Ramses I, his son Seti I, was involved in a military expedition in the Sinai,(9) because "the foe belonging to the Shasu are
plotting rebellion."(10) The Karnak Temple mural from which this record is quoted also states, "the rebels, they know not how they shall [flee]; the
vanquished of the Shasu [becoming like] that which exist not."(11) It stands to reason that an attack on a tribe of bedouins(12) could have waited at
least until Ramses' burial ... unless Seti believed that they were considered a threat to the throne, or assisting the people he considered responsible for
his father's death. (The name Seti is derived from the Nile Delta god Set. Set, in Egyptian legend was the murderer of Osiris. Later in Hebrew/Christian
beliefs he became namesake of the Biblical Satan.)

The following is a direct quote from "Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times" by Donald Redford.(13) "Shasu [literally meaning "a people who
move on foot"](14) are found in Egyptian texts from the 18th Dynasty through the Third Intermediate Period. They most frequently occur in
generalizing toponym lists where the context helps little in pinpointing their location. But lists from Soleb and Amarah [in Nubia], ultimately of
fifteenth century [B.C.] origin [circa 17th/18th Dynasty] suggest that an original concentration of Shasu settlements lay in southern Transjordan in the
plains of Moab and northern Edom. Here a group of six names is identified as in 'the land of the Shasu' and these include Se'ir (i.e., Edom), Laban
(probably Libona, south of Amman), Sam'ath (cf. the Shim'ethites, a clan of the Kenites: 1 Chron. 2:55), Wrbr (probably the Wady Hasa) [, Yhw, and
Pysps].(15) Elsewhere in texts of the 19th and 20th Dynasties, the consistent linking of Shasu with Edom and the Arabah (Timna) places the
identifications on the earlier lists beyond doubt."

"The localization of the 'Land of the Shasu' in the mountainous districts of Se'ir ... has an interesting consequence for one name in the mentioned lists
from Soleb and Amarah - 'Yhw (in) the land of the Shasu.' For half a century it has been generally admitted that we have here the tetragrammaton, the
name of the Israelite god, 'Yahweh'; and if this be the case, as it undoubtedly is, the passage constitutes a most precious indication of the whereabouts
during the late fifteenth century B.C. of an enclave revering this god. ... Numerous passages in later Biblical tradition ... depict Yahweh 'coming forth
from Se'ir' and originating in Edom."

Donald Redford goes on to state that the Shasu "burst with especially grievous force just before the beginning of the 19th Dynasty across ... northern
Sinai, cutting off Egypt's coastal route ... though Sety I had little trouble in beating them back ..." But why had these descendents of Laban
(uncle/father-in-law of Jacob and great-great-great-grandfather of the Biblical Moses, Genesis 28:2) and adherents of Yahweh (i.e., Jehovah), whose
homeland was in and around Mount Se'ir in Edom, suddenly appeared along the Via Maris (Mediterranean coastal route and main artery between
Egypt and Canaan) at the same time that Moses and the Israelites are said (according to Manetho) to have been driven from Egypt by "Rampses?".

A reasonable deduction is that they were requested by Akhenaten to assist in his return to Egypt, either to reclaim his throne, or to extract the
remainder of his followers ("speak to Pharaoh about bringing the Israelites out"). The size of the Shasu force (200,000 by the Karnak account), which
may have included the Exodus party ("the foe belonging to the Shasu"), and their actions (possibly raiding two Egyptian garrisons along the Via Maris
in order to obtain water)(16) were likely used as justification for a counterstrike by Seti.

The attacks on the Shasu were continued in the reign of the Pharaoh Ramses II who succeeded Seti, and were again considered important enough to be
recorded on the walls of the Karnak temple, and at the Nile Delta city of Tanis(17) as well. Moreover, Ramses II's son and successor Merenptah lists
another group (in lieu of the Shasu) as being a victim of his father's campaigning in Palestine, namely Israel itself (Israel stela account), indicating that
by Merenptah's time Israel was recognized as a separate people apart from the groups recorded by the Egyptians as living in "the land of the Shasu."
Sculpture found in tomb of King Tutankhamun
A version of the Hermopolitan cosmogony involves a celestial goose. This goose,
commonly known as the Great Cackler because it was the first creature to break
the silence, laid an egg on the primordial hill. The sun god Ra, who thereafter
continued the creation process, broke free from this egg. In another slightly
different (and later) version, it is an ibis that lays the egg on the island. This later
version was adapted to the story of the Ogdoad because the priests of Hermopolis
wanted to promote their local god Thoth (whom the Greeks knew as Hermes,
hence the name Hermopolis). An association with the Ogdoad would have given
Thoth more power and seniority over other popular gods.

The most poetic version of the Hermopolitan myth reverts to creation coming out
of the chaotic primeval ocean. Indeed, in this rendition of the story, it is a lotus
flower that is said to emerge from the waters. The petals of the lotus flower
unfolded and sitting on the calix (the centre / heart of the flower) was a divine
child, the god Ra. A remarkable sculpture found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun
shows the head of the young king emerging from a lotus flower, the petals fanning
out around his neck -- an image that depicts the young king with the powers of the
creator god Ra (see image left).

In a variation of the lotus flower theme, it is a scarab beetle that emerges from the
petals of the flower and who then turns himself into a little boy who weeps. The
scarab beetle is an important symbol of the sun god Ra and this will be explored in
later lessons.
4000 BC   The Sumerians from
today’s Iraq had contact with
extraterrestrial civilizations
according to their text. The
extraterrestrials also interbred
with humans and traveled with
them to the stars. The kings were
taken to the stars by the
extraterrestrials. Sumerian text
coincides with "the book of
genesis". Their astronomy was
highly developed. They had
numbers with 15 digits! The
Sumerians say extraterrestrials
are from Mars, the star system
Pleiades, and the star Sirius.
Sumerian text shows drawings of
solar system
1500 BC   Egypt,
The Palace of
Thutmosis III.  
Circles of fire are
said to have
hovered over the
palace while
fishes, winged
creatures, and
other objects
rained down from
the sky.
Moses and Akhenaten The secret history of
Egypt at the Time of the Exodus

During his reign, the Pharaoh Akhenaten was
able to abolish the complex pantheon of the
ancient Egyptian religion and replace it with a
single god, Ate, who had no image or form.
Seizing on the striking similarities between the
religious vision of this "heretic" pharaoh and the
teachings of Moses, Sigmund Freud was the first
to argue that Moses was in fact an Egyptian.
Now Ahmed Osman, using recent archaeological
discoveries and historical documents, contends
that Akhenaten and Moses were one and the
same man.

In a reinterpreation of the Exodus story, Osman
details the events of Moses/Akhenaten's life:
how he was brought up by Israelite relatives,
ruled Egypt for seventeen years, angered many
of his subjects by replacing the traditional
Egyptian pantheon with monotheism, and was
forced to abdicate the throne. Retreating to the
Sinai with his Egyptian and Israelite supporters,
he died out of the sight of his followers,
presumably at the hands of Seti I, after an
unsuccessful attempt to regain his throne.

Osman reveals the Egyptian components in the
monotheism preached by Moses as well as his
use of Egyptian royal ritual and Egyptian
religious expression. He shows that even the Ten
Commandments reveal the direct influence of
Spell 125 in the Egyptian Book of the Dead.
Moses and Akhenaten provides a radical
challenge to long-standing beliefs concerning the
origin of Semitic religion and the puzzle of
Akhenaten's deviation from ancient Egyptian
tradition. In fact, if Osman's contentions are
correct, many of the major Old Testament figures
are of Egyptian origin.