by Mary Sutherland

Geological evidence clearly indicates that physical disruptions of enormous magnitude have in the past imposed major alterations to the planet's geography, often submerging
entire continental landmasses beneath the sea, or raising others to become some of todays highest mountain ranges, as evidenced by the shells and skeletons of sea animals
that have been found high in the Himalayas. Geological evidence also confirms that the great plains of the USA and Mexico to Alaska were at one time under the sea; so also was
today's eastern coast of America whee the ocean once broke the 'Shores' of the  Appalachian Mountains. There is similar evidence of changes in the Earth's axis; tropical coral
reefs have been discovered as far north as Spritz Bergen within what is now the Polar Circle.

With these upheavals have come correspondingly sudden climatic changes. Coal deposits in Antarctica indicate that the area was once covered by forests.  In 1799 frozen bodies
of mammoths were discovered in the tundra of Siberia, their stomachs containing freshly eaten grasses and leaves that nowadays belong in regions a thousand or more miles to
the south.

Everything is cyclic and changes of the above magnitude have happened before and will happen again.

The pyramid of Xochicalco, situated at an altitude of 5,395 feet above sea level, to the south-southwest of the city of Cuernavaca, four and a half miles from Tetlama, is one of the
most ancient constructions made by human hands, and one of the most important in the history of mah among modern civilized Christian and Mohammedan nations. This
monument is a record, written on stone, of the tremendous cataclysm which caused the submergence and destruction of the Land of u along with its population of 64,000,000
people , about 11,500 years ago.

Immanuel Velikovsky has made a major contribution to research in this area. In his book WORLDS IN COLLISION, written in 1950, he assembles numerous biblical and ancient
historical references to such events, drawing substantially on contemporary accounts from the Middle East and Lower Mexico.  He quotes , for example, a long inscription in
hieroglyphics  on a shrine of black granite found at El-Arish on the border of Egypt and Palestine  that reads:

"The land was in great affliction. Evil fell on this earth. There was a great upheaval in the residence. Nobody could leave the palace during nine days, and during these nine days of
upheaval there was such a tempest that neither men nor gods could see the faces of those beside them."

This inscription corresponds exactly with the Bible's Exodus  10:22
"And there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days. They saw not one another, neither rose from this place for three days."

East of Egypt, in Babylonia, the eleventh tablet of the 'Epic of Gilgamesh" refers to the same events: "From out of the horizon rose a dark cloud and it rushed against the Earth; the
land was shrivelled by the heat of flames. Desolation stretched to heaven; all that was bright was turned into darkness. Nor could a brother distinguish his brother. For Six days
the hurricane, deluge, and tempest continued sweeping the land , and all humans back to their clay were returned"

The historian Ipuwer witnessed and survived this earthquake, recounting that; "The towns are destroyed, Upper Egypt has become a waste. ALl is ruin . The residence is
overturned in a minute." (Papyrus Ipuwer 2:11, 3:13)

From his research of ancient documents, Velikovsky concludes that the Earth was forced out of its regular motion by the close approach of the body of a comet: a major shock
convulsed the lithosphere, and the area of the earthquake was the entire globe. Terrific hurricanes swept the Earth because of the change or reversal of the angular velocity of
rotation and because of the sweeping gases, dust and cinders of the comet.  He supports this contention of worlwide disruptions with similar quotations from historical records of
Mexican tradition.

According to the Mexican sacred book 'Popol-Vuh', the ' Manuscript Cakchiquel'  and the 'Manuscript Troano', the mountains in every part of the Western Hemisphere
simultaneously gushed lava. The volcanoes that opened along the entire chain of the Cordilleras and in  ohter mountain ranges and on flat land vomited fire, vapour and torrents
of lava.

The Troano Manuscript and other Mayan documents describe a cosmic catastrophe during which the ocean fell upon the continent and a terrible hurricane swept the Earth.  
These records provide graphic accounts of hurricanes which broke up and carried away all towns and forests.  Exploding volcanoes, tides sweeping over mountains, and raging
winds threatened to annihilate humankind, and actually did annihilate many species of animals.

The face of the Earth changed, mountains collapsed,  others grew and rose over the onrushing cataract of water driven from oceanic spaces, numberless rivers lost their beds,
and a wild tornado moved through the debris descending from the sky.

The ancients referred to the physical agent that brought darkness and swept away houses and trees and even rocks and mounds of earth as 'Hurakan'' , from which our present
word 'hurricane' is derived. Hurakan , it is recorded, destroyed the major part of the human race . In the darkness swept by wind, resinous stuff fell from the sky and participated
with fire on water in the destruction of the world. For five days, save for the burning naphtha and burning volcanoes, the world was dark, since the sun did not appear.

In a later book, EARTH IN UPHEAVAL, Velikovsky takes a slightly different approach, now supporting biblical and other historical references with currently visible geological
evidence of past upheavals.

He describes, for example, an area in Alaska to the north of Mount McKinley which has a frozen layer of 'muck' composed of a jumble of trees and extinct animals, such as the
mammoth, mastodon and super bison. This was analyzed by Professor F.C. Hibben of the University of New Mexico who concluded the following:

"There is ample evidence that at least portions of this material were deposited under catastrophic conditions. Mammal remains are for the most part dismembered and
disarticulated, even though some fragments yet retain, in their frozen state, portions of ligaments, skin, hair and flesh.  Twisted and torn trees are piled in splintered masses.

At least four considerable layers of volcanic ash may be traced in these deposits, although they are extremely warped and distorted.  "The presence of volcanic ash indicates that a
volcanic eruption did take place, and repeatedly, in four consecutive stages of the same epoch; but it is also apparent that the trees could have been uprooted and splintered only
by hurricane or flood or a combination of both.  The animals could have been dismembered only by a stupendous wave that lifted and carried and smashed and tore and buried
millions of bodies and millions of trees. Also, the area of the catastrophe was much greater than the action of a few volcanoes could have covered."

During the late 1830s Hugh Miller made a special study of the Old Red Sandstone in Scotland, in which an abundant aquatic fauna is embedded. The animals embedded within it
are seen in very 'disturbed' positions. Miller writes: " Some catastrophe involved in sudden destruction the fish of an area at least a hundred miles from boundary to boundary,
perhaps more.  The same platform in Orkney, as at Cromarty, is strewed thick with remains, which exhibits unequivocally the marks of violent death. The figures are contorted,
contracted, curved; The tail in many instances is bent around the head; the spines stick out; the fins are spread to the full, as in fish that die in convulsions."

In 1901 , a quick frozen mammoth was found in Berosovka, Siberia, so well preserved that its eyeballs were fully intact. It still had buttercups in is mouth and the content of its
stomach indicated that it had been eating temperate zone plants, no longer growing in the area.   R.S. Lull, Director of the Peabody Museum at Yale, reports the discover in his
book ORGANIC EVOLUTION  , confirming that " ...a fractured hip and fore limb, a great mass of clotted blood in the chest, and un swallowed grass between the clenched teeth, all
point to the violence and suddenness of its passing."

Rock geology shows that there have been major uplifts of land masses around the globe. The great massif of the Himalayas is estimated to have risen to its present height since
the last Ice Age of over 11,000 years ago. Likewise the Andes in South America also show evidence of having been thrust upwards at this time.

Many other researchers have identified evidence of major geological changes during our plant's long history; indeed, thee are many areas in which even a casual observer can
see such evidence for him or herself, as for example when erosion shows cross sections of hillsides miles from the present coastline displaying deposits of seashells.

The stone city of Tiahunaco is so old that its broken pottery show pictutes of Pleistocene animals.

Immanuel Velikovsky summarizes these sudden geological changes:
"Wherever we investigate the geological records of this Earth, we find signs of catastrophes and upheavals, old and recent.  Mountains sprang from plains, and other mountains
were leveled; strata of the terrestrial crust were folded and pressed together and overturned and moved and put on top of other formations.  Igneous rock melted and flooded
enormous areas of land with miles-thick sheets, and the ocean bed flowed with molten rock. Ashes were showered down and built layers many yards thick on the ground and on
the bottom of the oceans in their vast expanse.  The shores of ancient lakes were tilted and are no longer horizontal and the seacoasts show subsidence or emergence, in some
place of over one thousand feet.

Rocks of the earth are filled with remains of life extinguished in a state of agony. Sedimentry rocks are one vast graveyard and the granite and basalt, too, have embedded in them
numberless living organism. Shells have closed valves as they do in living state, so unexpectedly came the entombment.  Vast forest were burned and washed away and covered
with the waters of the seas and with sand and turned to coal. Animals were swept to the far north and thrown into heaps and were soaked by bitumionous outpourings. Broken
bones and torn ligaments and the skins of animals, both of living species and of extinct species, were smashed together with splintered forests into huge piles. "

The theme of the cosmic hurricane is reiterated time and again in the Hindu Vedas and in the Persian Avesta. The 11th tablet of the Epic of Gilgamesh says that 6 days and a
night the hurricane, deluge and tempest continued , sweeping the land and mankind perished almost altogether.

The Maoris narrate that amid a stupendous catastrophe the mighty winds, the fierce squalls, the clouds, dense, dark, fiery, wildly drifting , wildly bursting, rushed on creation....and
swept away giant forests and lashed the waters into billows whose crests rose high like mountains.

The Polynesians celebrate a god, Taafanua. In Arabic, Tyfoon  is a whirlwind and Tufan is the Deluge and the same word occurs in Chinese as Ty-fong. It appears as though the
noise of the hurricane was ...not unlike the name Typhon.


Following the red dust, a small dust, like ashes of the furnace fell in all the land of Egypt (Exodus 9:18) and then a shower of meteorites flew toward the earth. We are informed by
Midrashic and Talmudic sources that the stones which fell on Egypt were hot. Ipuwere wrote. "Trees are destroyed. No fruits, no herbs are found . Grain has perished on every
side".  In the Book of Exodus 9:25, it is written. "And the hail smote every herb of the field, and brake every tree of the field." .

The description of such a catastrophe is found in the Visuddhi-agga, a Buddhist text on the world cycles.  "When a world cycle is detrroyed by wind...thee arises ...a wind.  First it
raises a fine dust, then fine sand, the coarse sand, then grit, stones, up to boulders as large as trees.  The Mexican Annals of Cuauhtitlan describe how a cosmic catastrophe was
accompanied by a hail of stones.


Crude petroleum is composed of two elements, carbon and hydrogen. The inorganic theory (of the origin of petroleum states that) hydrogen and carbon were brought together in
the rock formations of the earth under great heat and pressure. The tails of comets are composed mainly of carbon and hydrogen gases. Lacking oxygen, they do not burn in flight,
but the inflammable gases,  passing through an atmosphere containing oxygen, will be set on fire, binding all the oxygen available at the moment. The descent of a sticky fluid
which came earthward and blazed with heavy smoke is recalled in the oral and written traditions of the inhabitants of bother hemispheres.

Popol-Voh, th sacred book of the Mayas, narrates, "People were drowned in a sticky substance raining from the sky..and then there was a great din of fire above their heads:.  The
entire population of the land was annihilated. A similar account is preserved in the Annals of Cuahtitlan . The age which ended in the rain of fire was called "The Sun of Fire-Rain" .

In Siberiea, the Voguls carried down through the centuries and millenia this memory.  "God sent a sea of fire upon the Earth. In the Eat Indies, the aboriginal tribes relate that in the
remote past "water of fire"  rained from the sky. With very few exceptions, all men died.  The (Egyptian) payrus Ipuwer describes this consuming fire. "Gates, columns and walls are
consumed by fire. The sky is in confusion."  The papyrus says that this fire almost exterminated mankind.


The Mexican sacred book, Popol-Vuh, the Manuscript Cakchiquel, the Manuscript Troano all record how the mountains in every part of the Western Hemisphere simultaneously
gushed lava.  The rivers steamed, and even the bottom of the sea boiled here and there.  The Zend -Avesta says "The sea boiled, all the shores of the ocean boiled, all the  middle

The traditions of the Indians also retain the memory of this boiling of the water in river and sea. The tribes of British Columbia tell "Great Clouds appeared...and such a great heat
came, that finally the water boiled. People jumped into the streams and lakes to cool themselves and died."  On the North Pacific Coast of America , the tribes insist that the ocean
boiled. "It grew very hot..manyh animals jumped into the water to save themselves, but the water began to boil."  The Indians of the Southern Ute tribe in Colorado record in their
legends that the rivers boiled.

Jewish tradition, as preserved in the rabbinical sources, declares that the mire at the bottom of the Sea of Passage was heated. Hesoid in his Theogony, rlating the upheaval
caused by a celestial collision, says " The  huge earth groaned...A great part of the huge earth was scorched by the terrible vapor and melted as tin melts when heated by man's
art...or as iron, which is hardest of all things, is softened by glowing fire in mountain glens."


The slowing down  of the earth in its rotation would cause a tidal recession of water toward the poles, but the celestial body near by would disturb this poleward recession,
drawing the water toward itself. The traditions of many people persist that seas were torn apart and their water heaped high and thrown upon the continents.

The traditions of the people of Peru tell that for a period of time the sun was not in the sky, and then the ocean left the shore and with a terrible din broke over the continent. The
Choctaw Indians of Oklahoma relate, " The earth was plunged into darkness for a long time. finally a dark light appeared int he north, but it was mountain high waves, rapidly
comin nearer. : According to the Lapland epic, after the sea wall fell on the continent , gigantic waves continued to roll and dead bodies were dashed about in the dark waters.

The Hebrew story of the passage of the sea relates that the bottom of the sea was uncovered, the waters were driven apart and heaped up like walls in a double tide. The
Sepuagint translation of the bible says that the water stood 'as a wall' and the Koran, referring to the event, says 'like mountains' . In the old rabbinical literature it is said that the
water was suspended as if it were 'glass, solid and massive'.


Then follows the woeful description of the pitiful plight of these survivors, who had been left without shelter, clothing, tools and food. It was amid this dreadful scene of steaming
waters and clouds of drifting ash and smoke, that  most of them perished, and those few who remained took their first step backward into the dark depths of savagery as they
finally found themselves having to resort to cannibalism in order to survive.

This was but the beginning of a deep descent into the lowest state of humanity, which was to remain a traditional way of life in the Pacific region for thousands of  years to come.
Cannibalism was still rife in many of the Pacific Island, even up to the mid 1900s.

No doubt, we owe much of our modern civilization today, to that ancient motherland in the Pacific Ocean, by ways of the various great civilizations which she spawned first in
Atlantis, then India, the Americas, China, Egypt and finally, in Greece and Rome. It would seem that many of the inventions and skills that were common to the Muvians and
Atlanteans, are now simply being rediscovered by modern man.

Madame Helen Blavatsky, the famous psychic and occultist, who founded the Theosophical Society, claimed to have had contact  through psychic means with the Brotherhood of
Mahatmas (a group of ethereal beings who purported to run the world from their Tibetan headquarters) and that, among other amazing things, they had revealed the true
emergence of life on the earth.  She was told that there are seven 'root races' of beings destined to occupy the earth, and that we present day humans are the firth such race. The
Sixth will evolve out of us and go back to occupy Lemuria, then the seventh and final root race will leave this planet altogether and start over again upon the planet Mercury.
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