The Mound Builders  - The Ancient Ones- The Giants - The Men of Old - The Mound Builders -  Mound Builders
Mounds of Wisconsin - Mound Builders of Wisconsin - Effigy Mounds - Conical Mounds- Ceremonial Mounds -
Copper Falcon effigy, ca. 1-350 a.d. This effigy, made of pure native
copper from the northern shore of Lake Superior, was found as part of
an elaborate deposit of Hopewell objects at the Mound City Group,
located near Chillicothe, Ohio. Its existence indicates relatively advanced
capabilities in the areas of metalsmithing and metalworking, more
advanced than previously supposed.
Image from National Park Service.
Carved ceremonial pipes
These specimens include an
owl, a toad, and a raccoon.
Image from Ohio History
Serpent made of pure mica. Mica was one of the numerous minerals unique
to the American southeast that was an important resource for craftwork or
for trade. Image from The University of Misssouri-Kansas City.
There have been many copper artifacts found throughout several
Wisconsin sites. The implements that have been uncovered include
awls, spear points, fishhooks, knives and harpoons. Copper spuds
have been found as well. The spuds are especially interesting because
of the large number found and because they appear to have had an
implemental, as opposed to ornamental, use.

Ornamental artifacts include beads, a clasp or clip, bracelet, rings,
crescents and celts. Sixty beads, found at the Reigh Site, were strung
together in what appears to be a necklace. All copper artifacts were
covered with a heavy green patination due to the formation of copper

Wisconsin State Historical Society
This rare Intrusive Mound
culture human head effigy was
found in a gravel pit by Henry
Ward of Pickaway Co., Ohio, in
1930. This specimen is a
textbook example of this
extremely rare artifact.
Converse has reported that
these effigies "are usually highly
stylized portrayals rather than
life-like images of the human
A human head effigy manufactured from

 A human effigy made of limestone, this
remarkable artifact is part of the collection
given to the Cincinnati Museum of Natural
History by the Cincinnati Art Museum.
Originally collected by Thomas Cleary in
the late 1800's, this rare sculpture is
similar to other human head effigies found
with Intrusive Mound burials in Ohio. It's
provenience is listed as Tennessee
One such copper breastplate
was found buried with an
individual in Etowa Mounds .-
Strings of small and large copper
beads, shell beads, a crescent-shaped
earring and finely polished stone
artifacts were found at the Augustine
Mound site. They are shown here in
the bowl of a large mortar stone from
another Red Bank site.
A Moundbuilder pictograph of the likeness of an
unbridled horse in Picture Canyon, Cirnarron County,
Oklahoma, which shows that Indians in early times
were acquainted with horses. This picture appeared in
October 1955 Improvement Era.
Indented gorget from Mercer Co.,
An Indented Gorget
Ron Helman
 Indented gorgets are rare. Quite
often they are broken and many
exhibit signs of extensive wear and
use. Many of them are engraved
or have undecipherable incised
lines. A number of them are made
of red slate or banded slate with
contrasting lines. This indented
gorget was first collected by
Raymond Vietzen and was later in
the Dr. Stanley Copeland
collection. It was found 5 miles
south of Celina in Mercer Co. near
the Darke Co. line. It is 5 3/4
inches long and is made of dark
maroon/red slate. As can be seen
from the color plate, it shows
evidence of heavy use
An Intrusive Mound human head effigy crafted
from sandstone.- Ohio

These are usually highly stylized portrayals rather than life like images of the human head. From the few
that are known or have been published certain characteristics can be observed. The eyes are usually
carefully scooped out hollows with no indication of the eye itself or the eyelid. The brows curve
symmetrically into a projecting nose which is ridge-like with neither nostrils or nose holes shown. The
mouth is also a projecting ridge bisected by a straight line forming the lips.
 The hair or hairline is sometimes prominent or may be indicated only by an indented line. These
effigies are often made of fine-grained sandstone although other materials such as the quartz-like stone
of the Shipley specimen (Fig. 1) was sometimes used. Most of the known examples are drilled from the
bottom with one or two half-inch holes which are about two inches deep The holes were probably for
mounting on some sort of staff or handle. Because these intriguing effigies are so rare - there are
probably less than ten published examples - the observations made here are only general but the
sculptural traits noted seem to follow a pattern.
Mounds - Illinois
Unfortunately for the archaeology record, most of the vast numbers of ceramic
artifacts found at the Crable site in Fulton County, Illinois, were removed by
collectors and commercial diggers in the early part of the last century. Some
have found their way into institutions like the Illinois State Museum, Dickson
Mounds Museum and Western Illinois University. Many more have been hidden
away, scattered, sold and traded among collectors over the last 75 years. It is
unusual to find large groups of these vessels in one place. Most of the time one
or two turn up in a collection, auction or antique store.
Princess of Aztalan, Wi
At the center of the Princess Mound at a depth of about 4
feet below the
surrounding terrain or about 10 feet below the assumed
original summit of the
mound was found the burial of a young woman. She was
perhaps 20-25 years
age. The grave measured about 8 feet long and about 3
feet wide at the bottom.
The body was found on it's back and in the extended burial

Moundville, Alabama, ceremonial disk
(diameter 12.5 inches):