copyright 2004 & 2018  Mary Sutherland
Continued from Page One

Poverty Point

Poverty Point was a TRADING CITY, called by some a chalcolithic Berber Singapore, through which the copper wealth of the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes was funnelled. Copper from
Lake Superior, notes Ronald Mason, made it all the way to the Gulf Coast and eventually to the Old World; and north-south trade with the "Red Ochre Culture" is  proved by the Wisconsin
Archaeologist. Observes R. Ben Madison --

Utilizing Megalithic ideas, Poverty Point's mounds were aligned so as to predict the vernal and autunmal equinoxes. At its peak, between 1000 and 700, Poverty Point had a population of over
5,000 people. Its direct territorial control took in the Mississippi Valley in Mississippi, Louisiana and southern Arkansas.  There were also noted two distinct districts in the city.

The Phoenician ships with their Israelite traders/buyers used this port on the Mississippi for buying the ore that was transported down the river from Lake Superior and the Isle Royale. The fact
that Poverty Point was divided into two districts points to a Canaanite-Phoenician/Berber quarter and a quarter for the Israelites who traveled on the Phoenician ships. Evidently, a large quantity
of the copper ore stockpiled by David for use in the Temple passed through Poverty Point. Later, David's son Solomon continued importing the ore from Lake Superior for his grandiose building
projects -- until it was finally exhausted.

The Invasion of the Dannites

The Old Copper Berbers mined copper and their population multiplied for almost 1000 years before a major revolution took place. Back in Europe the Berbers of Iberia and Western Europe
were eventually reduced to little more than a collection of placenames after a massive invasion of Celts erupted from the east. These Danites  were migrating Israelite tribes from the Black Sea
area, spawned a culture known to the archaeologists as the Hallstat-La Tene Culture. Emerging in central Europe and exploding to the west some fifty years later, the Danites  pushed the
Canaanite Berbers to the far north regions of Norway, Finland and Russia. A few pockets remained in the Basque areas of Europe and in Pictland in northern Britain.

The Canaanite-Berber cultures of Western Europe were savagely disrupted by the invading Israelites (Dan). Refugees -- first a trickle, then a flood -- began to flee from the ceaseless predations
of this migrating people from the East. Thousands boarded their boats and set sail for the New World; and a massive surge of Berber immigration to North America from North Africa and the
Iberian Peninsula was underway -- as proven by a myriad of cultural innovations from the Beaker Group culture which burst upon the North American scene. Professor Barry Fell dates a MAJOR
WAVE of "Iberian" (i.e. Canaanite-Berber) colonists to the New World to this period (America B.C., frontpiece).

Explains R. Ben Madison --

At this point in the archaeological record, Berber cultural traits appear suddenly and mysteriously all across the eastern United States and in the Caribbean. North African bent-stick and
split-stick hafting techniques for grooved stone axes, for example, spread throughout the region. Agriculture, pottery, earthen mounds, and "new artifacts" arrived suddenly (Mason, 202). In
Central America, pottery dating from this period is virtually identical to that being produced by North African Berbers (Kennedy 1971, 270f). All over the northeastern part of North America the
dominant "Vinette 2" style of pottery shows clear Iberian Beaker influence (Kehoe, 290f). At the same time, The Old Copper Berbers in southeastern Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois and Indiana
began to employ the use of RED OCHRE in their burial rites in large quantities. Archaeologists often refer to this stage of Berber development as a "Red Ochre Culture" (Mason 224). But it is
important to note that the Old Copper and Red Ochre "cultures" were in truth a single entity (WA 67: 229; Griffin, 239; Map 3). This use of red ochre in burial rites is, needless to say, a well-known
feature of Berber culture (Camps 1974, 173ff). -- The Berber Project, pp. 13-14.

According to the Greek historian Herodotus (484?B.C. - 425B.C.), Berbers wore what we call "Mohawk" haircuts -- like many North American Indian tribes. Herodotus also mentions that the
Berbers engaged in the same kind of "vision quest" commonly found in North American cultures (Herotodus: The History, 4: 172ff). "To this day," adds Madison, "Berbers have the same kind of
animal legends as North American Indian mythology (Hart, 164f). Berbers had arrowheads, atlatls (spear throwing devices), WORE FEATHERS IN THEIR HAIR, and wore fringed leather
clothing, exactly like the Native American peoples of North America (Kennedy 1971, 272f)." (P. 14).

Following this Great Migration around 500 B.C., we are left with three large and substantial Canaanite/Berber groups in the New World. The first -- which had settled around Lake Superior and
Wisconsin in approximately 1430 B.C. -- was named the "Old Copper Culture" by the archaeologists. Its continuation, the "Red Ochre Culture," spread through Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois and
Indiana. The second group settled in and around Poverty Point, Louisiana circa 1000 B.C. Finally the third group, which was the third great wave of Berber immigration, arrived shortly after 500
B.C. and was instrumental in the emergence of the Adena Culture

All these groups, explains R. Ben Madison, maintained some contact with their parent civilization, the Beaker groups, back in Europe and North Africa. But when the Danites  exploded into Spain
and pushed the Canaanite-Berbers out, this disrupted what was left of the Beaker trade with the New World and, at roughly the same time, "for reasons not yet understood," the Isle Royale
copper mines were abandoned and there occurred a substantial decline (in the New World) in the use of copper to manufacture everyday tools and utensils. Jim Bailey writes that around Lake
Superior, which was a focus of Canaanite/Berber colonization in those days, modern Ojibwe Indian legends say that their ancestors drove out a race of white miners (Sailing to Paradise. N.Y.:
Simon & Schuster, 1994. P. 30ff). At the same time that the Danites/Celts  drove the Berber Beaker culture (also, Picts) out of western Europe, the Poverty Point culture (the Berber Beaker trading
outpost in the New World) also collapsed. The reason the Poverty Point culture collapsed is not sure, but it seems its inhabitants dispersed to the West.

However, one Berber culture in North America survived -- the "Red Ochre" culture in Wisconsin. From this culture (along with the new influx of Berbers from Spain) a new civilization was
beginning to emerge -- the ADENA CULTURE.

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Wisconsin - Land of the Dead
"Oh, Wisconsin. Beneath your feet is an ocean of bones...."
"They (railroad crews) knocked the top off of the small hill called Butte Des Morts. It was full of skeletons. Tracks were laid across the cut and The combined bones and rock became the
track bed." - a diary description of the 19th century decapitation of a section of "the hill of the dead"(Butte Des Morts) on the shore of Little Lake Butte Des Morts in Neenah.  

The hill is reputed to hold the piled up corpses of Fox Indians killed during a battle against the French and their Indian Allies in the Fox/French Wars. More likely, the hill had been part of a
long standing burial ground and contained the bones of the ancient mound builders. Mounds are everywhere, their remains may be beneath your feet right as you read this. In the mid to
late 19th century countless mounds were plowed over by farmers. Road crews crushed bones into aggregate for road and railroad beds. It's safe to say that all of Wisconsin's primary
roads contain shattered bits of the bones of the ancient dead.