Hill Crest Mound located in Burlington, WI  - Rediscovered by Mary Sutherland
December 2010

Mound Builders of Wisconsin  Page Two
A compilation of Reports and Newspaper Clippings
by Mary Sutherland  @2010  BACK TO PAGE ONE
Menomonee, Wisconsin Mounds

Waukesha Freeman – Waukesha Wisconsin
Thursday, May 31, 1906
Excerpt From 'Things from long Ago'

Menomonee – Indications of aboriginal village sites known to exists near Menomonee Falls
and Fussville. Seven human skeletons discovered in digging a basement at former place
a few years ago.

Menasha, Wisconsin Mounds

Appleton Post-Crescent – Appleton, Wi , Monday, November 14, 1927
Old Indian Mounds Put to Queer Uses - Early Settler Built Houses on Them and Used Them for Their Cemeteries - Madison – AP –
The approximate fifteen thousand Indian burial mounds which once dotted Wisconsin, were put to various curious and interesting uses by early settler who failed to understand their
significance and historical value. Many white settlers buried their own dead in the Indian earthworks, the first city cemetery at Menasha being located among Indian skeletons, according
to T.T. Brown of the Wisconsin Archaeological Society. On the upper campus of the University of Wisconsin the early pioneers of Madison entered their dead in 1839 in graves dug by the
side of a prehistoric mound built by red men to represent the water spirit, says Mr. Brown, who quotes Dr. Increase A. Lapham as his authority.

Merton, Wisconsin Mounds

Waukesha Freeman – Waukesha Wisconsin
Thursday, May 31, 1906
Excerpt From 'Things from long Ago'
Merton – Two groups of mounds and one village site have been found

Milwaukee Area Mounds

Weekly Wisconsin, Milwaukee Wisconsin
Saturday, June 2, 1888
The Wisconsin Mounds
Curious Relics of a Prehistoric Race
First Installment of a Series of Interesting Papers Prepared for the “Wisconsin” by John Haug – The Mounds Near Milwauke

The Wisconsin publishes herewith the first of a series of papers on “The Prehistoric Relics of Wisconsin” Prepared by John Haug, of ilwaukee. Mr Haug, who is a tech in St. Joseph's
School, has resided here for ten years, and has at frequent intervals throughout that period devoted time to the exploration of the ancient mounds with which these state abounds. He has
opened several of thee mounds in the immediate vicinity of Milwaukee. The report of his discoveries, and his conclusions regarding the identity of the forgotten race by whom they were
constructed, will be read with interest. His first paper, treating on the the general subject of the mound-builders, and describing several mounds which he opened in the vicinity of
Milwaukee, is as follows:

Four hundred years ago, when the American continent was discovered by Christopher Columbus, a great number of Indian tribes were roaming through the large plains and dense
forests, which at present constitute the United States of America. These Indians found by Columbus were not, however, its earliest inhabitants. They had been preceded by a race, much
more civilized and skilled in the arts, of which extensive remains are to be found in nearly all states of the Union. This prehistoric race is known as the Mound Builders, from the great
number of mounds or earthwork, which they erected. The basins of the Mississippi and the Great Lakes contain traces of a numerous and busy people who tilled the soil, worked the
copper mines and made large buildings for habitation and defense. Not a word of their history is known to us; the monuments and relics which they left behind them are the only proof of
their existence. The greatest part of these most ancient and interesting relics consists of mounds or earthworks varying in size and shape. Some of them have large dimensions and high
elevations. They were erected for the purpose of defense. Others served as foundations for water towers and signal stations. Any were burial mounds which have a conical shape and are
of smaller size. Still others bear evidence of having been used as places for worship and sacrifice. To this class belong those peculiar earthworks in which the figures of men and
animals are imitated. The state of Wisconsin is particularly distinguished for these emblematic mounds, which, as well as other works of great extent, are found in numerous localities,
ear te border of lakes, on the margin of watercourses and on large plains which were adapted for the cultivation of the soil. It is a very remarkable fact, that they are chiefly found at places
selected for modern settlement, showing that the instincts of both civilized and uncivilized are alike with regard to those localities which combine at once the useful and the beautiful. The
remarkable earthworks and emblematic mounds of which I give a description were visited and partially examined by myself. I commence to describe those ancient remains which I found
in the nearest vicinity to Milwaukee.

The earthworks and burial mounds near the small creek Kinnickinnic must have been very numerous. Ten years have passed since I came to this place for the first time, and of many
mounds which I saw there, there can be found no trace anymore. According to Lapham, the adjoining ground was settled in 1836, when the place was already destitute of trees and
exhibited signs of recent Indian occupancy and cultivation. The fields lie at a considerable height above the creek. The soil is loose and could be easily worked by the rude instruments of
the aborigines, which was a good reason for selected this place. I examined carefully one large burial mound lying on the right bank of the creek, abut one mile distant from the city limits.
The mound had a base diameter of 15 feet; its height was 6 feet. In connection with decayed fragments of bones belonging to different individuals I found large and small pieces of
pottery, showing peculiar ornamental impressions. The decayed relics of skeletons were at the base of the mound. The mound itself consisted of black ground, which had to be taken
from a distant place. A great variety of arrowheads and cutting utensils were mixed with the group; a peculiar flint stone of a triangular form, sharpened on all sides, and a round limestone
were remarkable; also several pieces of copper ore, probably coming from Lake Superior, were lying near the bone fragments. Nearly all the tones intermixed with the black ground are
unknown in the vicinity. On the north side of the mound was a skeleton in a good condition, undoubtedly belonging to a later  Indian tribe. The head was facing toward north and rested on
the left arm. The teeth were in an excellent state of preservation, not a single one missing, and as white as ivory. An immense trunk of an oak tree was at the top of the mound, attesting its
great antiquity.
Half a mile south of Forest Home Cemetery are the remains of an enclosure not far from some large springs; the walls were about 18 inches high and 3 to 4 feet wide. The enclosure
was surrounded by two circular ridges, the outer one interrupted by two gateways; some irregular excavations were within the walls. There is no doubt that these walls are the only
remaining trace of some building erected here. The nature of the edifice can only be conjectured. Probably it consisted of palisades or timbers set in the ground. Further up the creek,
north of the Janesville plank road and not far from some very large mounds are similar works. The enclosure is about 100 feet long and 30 feet wide Near Forest Home were about fifty
circular mounds and five of some animal shaped form; but of all these ancient relics hardly a trace can be found at the present time.

A very interesting place of prehistoric works is about five miles north of Milwaukee. This locality is known by the name of Indian Prairie. The works are situated on a level plain, elevated
about thirty feet above the Milwaukee River, which runs along the eastern border. The bank is well adapted for a safe protection against attack. On the south side is a ravine twenty feet
high. Whether the west and north sides were protected is doubtful. No traces of fortification could be found. A very small creek which bounds this place in the north could be no protection
whatsoever. Two large mounds are in the middle of this space. Both, are fifty-three feet in diameter at the base and seven to eight feet high. The southern mound was opened and
examined by myself. Some laborers who assisted me had to work hard till they reached the center of the mound. A great number of human, half-decayed bones were found at the base,
which were remarkable for their extraordinarily large size. The ground, which was taken from the adjoining land, was mixed with ashes and charcoal. A large quantity of broken pottery was
lying near the fragments of bones. From observations which I made on similar works which were sacrificial or altar mounds, I came to the conclusion that this mound was erected for
such a purpose. A great number of smaller mounds are erected in different parts of the place without definite order or arrangement. Of a peculiar interest are four works of excavations,
which lie in a southwest direction, about 200 feet from the large mounds. They are of regular form, and the reverse of some emblematic mounds; the shape represented is that of a turtle.
At the southern end of these remains are two mounds in the form of a cross; the largest one measures 166 feet in length; the two arms being about seventy feet. Whether the builders of
these works intended to represent in the two last mentioned mounds the form of a cross or the shape of an animal – a bird- is a matter of mere conjecture.
In the near vicinity of these emblematic mounds are the remains of former cultivation, consisting of a broad parallel ridges, the so-called “Ancient garden beds.” The arrangement of the
ridges is more perfect than it was in use by the later Indians. Although this place has long since ceased to be the residence of an Indian population, yet it is visited yearly by a few families.
Many of the mounds have been opened for the burial of the remains of Indians deceased. The graves were secured from the ravages of wild animals by logs of wood placed in large piled
upon the mound. Farther up the river, north of this locality I found ancient relics which belong to the same class as the works described before. Pieces of pottery and arrow heads were
scattered over a field of nearly fifty acres. I examined one large conical mound, but besides the decayed fragments of a skeleton, nothing of special interest could be found.

Muskego, Wisconsin Mounds

Waukesha Freeman – Waukesha Wisconsin
Thursday, May 31, 1906
Excerpt From 'Things from long Ago'

Muskego – The Muskega Lake region was a favorite resort of the Pottawatomies and a number of the sites of their villages and their camps have been relocated by Sec. Chas. E. Brown,
assisted by other members of the society and by old settlers residing in the neighborhood. Village sites and graves exist at various places along the shores of Big Muskego Lake. The
graves are in one instance at least laid out in a net plat of parallel rows and are covered with boulders, the object being to preserve the bones against the attacks of wild animals, and the
dogs of the nearby Indian village.

New Berlin, Wisconsin Mounds

Waukesha Freeman – Waukesha Wisconsin
Thursday, May 31, 1906
Excerpt From 'Things from long Ago'

New Berlin – A few mounds in the neighborhood of Calhoon said to have formerly existed.

New Lisbon, Wisconsin Mounds

Weekly Wisconsin, The | Milwaukee, Wisconsin | Wednesday, October 08, 1884 | Page 7
THE Indian mounds on the farm of Mr. Gee, near New Lisbon, Junean County, are being explored by Messrs. Weed, Anderle and Hinton. The elevations
outline an animal and are known to experts as " panther mounds." They are composed of clay and sand, and from the brick-like hardness of the surface it is supposed that the builders
completed their work by planting large fires upon them. In the center of one of the mounds a skull and the bones of a leg and arm were found, a fracture in the skull giving evidence of a
violent death. Judging by the .size of the trees on the mound the burial took place over 100 years ago.

Oconomowoc, Wisconsin Mounds

Waukesha Freeman – Waukesha Wisconsin - Thursday, May 31, 1906 - Excerpt From 'Things from long Ago'
Oconomowoc – Mounds formerly existed N.E. Of the city – now obliterated.

Pewaukee, Wisconsin Mounds

Waukesha Freeman – Waukesha Wisconsin - Thursday, May 31, 1906 - Excerpt From 'Things from long Ago'
Pewaukee – Dr. Lapham speaks of a collection of lizards and turtles about a mile and a half southeast of the village of Pewaukee as the most remarkable yet discovered. It consists of
seven turtles, two lizards, four oblong mounds and a remarkable excavation.

Picketts, Wisconsin Mounds

PREHISTORIC DEAD - THE MOUND BUILDER'S TOMB - Oshkosh Daily Northwestern | Oshkosh, Wisconsin | Saturday, April 19, 1890 | Page 5
Opening of a Mound Near Picketts, A Dozen Skeletons Found in a Circle- Strange Traces of an Extinct Race

Picketts, Wisc- April 19—Learning that Mr. J. G. Pickctt has a collection of implements of prehistoric date, a representative of  THIS NORTHWESTERN recently called upon him and was
shown some two hundred specimens of stone and copper implements ranging from a atone mortar weighing200 pounds to a tiny flint arrow half an inch in length. Many of them were very
rare, and nearly all of them were found within two miles of the station. But what most interested the scribe was an account given by Mr. Pickett of a recent exploration made by him of a
mound near the station. Mr. Pickett stated that during the past winter in reading works on prehistoric America, he saw the statement that the remains of the mound builders  so far found
have furnished but few specimens well enough preserved to well illustrate their cranial development. His own experience in excavating many mounds  in different parts of the state had
proved the truth of this statement.

With the mound builders cremation of the dead was common and where burials were made in mounds he  had never until now found a skull sufficiently well preserved to indicate the
pecularities of the individual.

Having a little leisure before commencement of seeding Mr. Pickett and his little boy had improved the  two holidays by opening one of a group of about a dozen mounds near his place.
The mound selected when he first saw it in 1846 was about thirty feet in  diameter at the base and seven feet high, standing in a forest of somewhat scattered oaks and havng growing
upon it some of the largest trees. For many years the land upon which these mounds are located has been under constant cultivation.

The largest have been greatly reduced in height and enlarged at their base by the use of the ploy and the constant washing down of the soil, while the smaller ones are  almost
obliterated. The mound selected was the one originally the most prominent. The excavation was made in the  center of the mound about teen feet square the soil being the
same as the surface soil of the field for about three feet. Then  came the apex of a smaller inner mound, oval or dome shaped, the covering of which was cement, apparently made
of a grayish mar and sand about four inches in thickness and so hard that it was with difficulty broken through with the spade and  removed.

Under this cement covering was again surface soil covering and intermingled with what was undoubtedly, perhaps a thousand years ago, the remains of ten or twelve mound builders.
The remains were packed closely together, the heads in the center of the mound and the feet extending outward in a circle, and all lying upon the face with the arms extending above the

The bodies appeared to have been placed upon or a little below the surface all at the same time, slightly covered with dirt forming a little mound, which was then carefully covered or
encased by a roof of cement and over which was then built the large mound of earth.

The only implements found were a stone celt or flesher, a small stone axe and two or three flint arrows.
The general covering had so perfectly excluded all moisture that the skeletons had been quite well preserved and from size and appearance they all seemed to be adult males.
Mr. Pickett was able to secure several skulls in a very fine state of preservation. He has excavated a great many mounds in different parts of the state and he says that in every instance
where intrusive burials have been made by the Indians in the mounds which they found ready made, the body deposited above what was the original surface of ground, while the mound
builder invariably deposited his dead upon or a little below the surface where they were either cremated or their bodies, as in this case, covered slightly with dirt (?) in cement and then
covered by the earth mound; and he is very positive in his opinion that the remains found in this mound were of that strange race of people who were the first inhabitants of the continent,
whose dim and uncertain history can only be studied by their implements and weapons of stone, bone and copper so plentifully found along all the wter courses of the state and in vast
number of mounds and earth works erected by them for the purpose of defense, for burial and for the observances by them of their religious rites – a people
mighty in numbers who have utterly vanished from the earth and whose childish embankments and knolls of earth are daily being leveled down by the plow of a civilization which is
making a history as imperishable as its monuments.

Platteville, Wisconsin Mounds

Daily Tribune, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin - Thursday, July 24, 1975 - 60 Effigy Mounds Found Platteville, WI  
More  than 60 mounds made by a people who lived in the Mississippi River Valley 1,000 or more years ago were found this summer by University of Wisconsin-Platteville archeologists.
The mounds range from an eagle or hawk effigy with a wingspread of 270 feet and a length of 105 feet to tiny mounds three feet wide and five feet long. Clarence Geier, an archeology
professor who directed the project said curiosity about what motivated the effigy people to construct their massive earthen mounds has sent him into the field for two summers on a state
historical society grant.
The mound builders are believed to have been huners and gatherers  who lived in the river valleys of southern and western Wisconsin from roughly 500 to 1,000 A.D.  Another prehistoric
people who built less elaborate mounds lived I the area still earlier.
“The people had no bulldozers, in fact no metal tools at all, but they carried huge volumes of dirt, often quite some distance, in baskets on their back,” Geier said. He said the mounds
probably were symbols of the culture's religion, similar to churches in Western man's culture. The mounds and living sites of the effigy people have a lot of potential for lending insight into
the behavior and livelihood of the Indians, Geier added.
Unfortunately, he said, the mounds are being obliterated at a rapid clip, through leveling of farm land, the work of souvenir hunters and the action of the river itself. Geier and his
associates also excavated a living site that contained one or two houses, he believes were occupied for only eight months or so some 1700 years ago.

Plover, Wisconsin Mounds

Oshkosh Daily Northwestern | Oshkosh, Wisconsin | Saturday, August 07, 1886 | Page 1
PI.OVER, Wis.. Aug. 7— The mounds at Plover arc now exciting the antiquarians. There arc fifteen or twenty mounds in this region. Some are built in the shape of a bird, with
mathematical precision, and the wing?, etc.. even at this remote period plainly discernible when pointed out. Others take the form of animals. A gentleman who was here recently, making
a survey of the mounds. Says that one of the mounds here is different from anything he has seen so far.  This has the representation of some animal now extinct. .

Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin Mounds
Appleton Post-Crescent – Appleton, Wi , Monday, November 14, 1927 - Old Indian Mounds Put to Queer Uses
The buildings of houses and barns on mounds was a common practice among the first settlers. In lower Prairie du Chien, where mounds were once numerous, the cottage homes of
French pioneers were perched on the tops of Indian mounds, which served to elevate them above the high water of the Mississippi River in flood.

Prairie du Sac, Wisconsin Mounds

Postville Review | Postville, Iowa - Friday, March 30, 1906 | Page 6 - Who built the mounds of Wisconsin?
From the advent of the whites the problem of the mound builders has been a more intricate one than it was when the scientific world was wrestling with the curious earth structures In
Ohio and other older sections of the country. There is a strange Individuality in the earthworks of Wisconsin, different from those of other parts, and the most perplexing thing about the
problem is whether the builders here were the originators of the work, or did they attempt' to copy the structures of other aboriginal peoples? The Indians found here by the first whites
were ignorant of the origin or purpose of the mounds, although knew occasionally of their using the circular heaps of earth in some of their ceremonials. But they claimed to
know nothing of their building nor of their builders.

The most common forms In which these mounds were constructed and in which the' whites found them are round mote hills, called tumulus; in imitation of birds and animals, called
effigy mounds, and long horizontal ridges. Probably the. tumuli are the most numerous. And these are In all sixes. One of the largest in this vicinity is about four miles southwest
of Prairie du Sac, which, measures 63 feet in diameter across the base and is now 13 feet in height - the summit. This stands in the woods and has not been leveled in an attempt to
work the land. Many are not more than two or three feet in height, and a large percentage of those that were found by early settlers are entirely obliterated by years of plowing and
harrowing. Of the effigy mounds those In the form of birds are most numerous, although there are plenty that mark the outlines of the lizard, deer, bear and other animals -plainly that
nobody can mistake the
intent of the artists who shaped them.

Racine, Wisconsin Mounds

Racine Journal Times – Racine Wisconsin -Monday, October 31, 1977 - Excerpt from article:

Eloquent evidence of Woodland faith in the afterlife in present in Racine County in the characteristic conical and oval burial mounds of this earlier civilization. At one time, when Wisconsin
had thousands of mounds, Racine County probably contained a few hundred. Among those that may be associated with the Woodland Indians are those at
Tichigan and Eagle Lake at
and near
Wind Lake and at Burlington and Racine. The largest mounds in the County appear to have been a conical one the east side of Fox River at Burlington that was fifty feet in
diameter and ten feet high, and another of the same shape and diameter, but only seven feet high, in Mound Cemetery area in Racine. Excavated Racine County mounds have revealed
the remains of from one to fourteen or “several” individuals, but usually more than one.

Sheboygan, Wisconsin Mounds  

Sheboygan Press, Sheboygan Wisconsin- Friday, April 29, 1927 - Description of Indian Mounds in the County
“In the 12th Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 'About two miles west of on a bluff, overlooking the marsh was a mound that had been previously opened by Mr. Haysson of
Sheboygan. It was found literally filled to the depth of two and one-half feet with human skeletons, many of which were well preserved and evidently those of modern Indians, as with them
were the usual modern weapons and ornaments. Beneath these was a mass of rounded boulders aggregating several wagon loads, below which were some 40 or 50 skeletons in a
sitting posture. in a circle around and facing a very large sea shell.' This specimen (which at present is in the Milwaukee Public Museum) measures 21 inches in length and 29 inches in
circumference at its greatest girth.
“Dr Cyrus Thomas refers to this mound saying tht, though in part erroneously, 'It is worthy of notice in this connection that there are no effigy mounds, so far as known, in this immediate
section where the two works just mentioned are situated, but there is near by one small oval enclosure bout 50 feet in diameter.
“Dr. Thomas adds: ' In studying the burial mounds of the district now under consideration, of which the foregoing may be considered as types, there appears to be no marked distinction
between the intrusive burials of modern Indians and the originals for which the mounds were constructed.'
“In both we observe from one to many skeletons in a place; in bot we find them stretched uot horizontally and also folded; in both we sometimes notice evidences where the mortar-like
covering has been used, and in both we meet occasionally with those confused masses of bones which seem to have been gathered from graves or in other temporary burial places, into
these mounds as common depositories. Moreover, the transition from one to the other is so gradual as to leave us noting save the position in the mound and the presence of vestiges of
civilized art to distinguish the former from the later.”
“The writer shares the opinion of the late Mr. Henschell,k that this mound was originally constructed over a vault. From these various descriptions, the writer infers that there was an
excavation in the natural surface covered by a roof of flat stones, possibly, originally held together by a mortar-like substance.”
“Mr. George W. Wolff states that Mr. Hayseen and he excavated a mound of this group in 1865. This measured about 14 feet in length and 6 feet in width, and was about 3 feet high.”
“The direction of this mound was northwest to southeast. He states that nothing was found except one quite large shell.”
“The Henschells possessed a collection of stone and copper implements found on this farm. Unfortunately these were destroyed by fire a few years ago. The writer, many years ago,
made a sketch of one of the interesting tablet-form perforated gorgets, which was ornamented with incised markings. Another one, destroyed, was spatula-shaped. “
“Last year the writer obtained a pipe found near the cyst mound. This was made of stalactite.”
“There are other scattering mounds on these hills bordering the marsh. Mr. H. Henschell mentioned a conical mound about one-third mile north of his farm. He also mentioned an Indian
burial place on the former George Kleinhaus farm. The latter was a modern cemetery. Mr. Henschell describes this as enclosed by stakes driven in the ground and rectangular in shape.”
“On the Section 0 (S.E. ¼) on the Val. Conrad farm, near the edge of the marsh, a mound formerly existed which has now been leveled by the ploy. Other burials have been disclosed
“ Bordering the marsh (Sec. 8 and 9) on the John Huberty farm, is the site of a prehistoric village. Here the writer obtained a curved base pipe made of drab-colored stealite and an oval
gorget made of reddish sandstone as well as some fine copper spears and an ax.”

“In Section 18, on the John Berenz farm, a fine fluted ax was found. This beautiful specimen is at present in the Rudolph Kuehne collection at Sheboygan.”
“North of this farm, the norh west corner of the marsh extends into Fond du Lac county. In order to describe this marsh as clearly as possible, it may be mentioned that on the  east shore
of Wolf Lake, in Fond du Lac county, about one mile west of this portion of the marsh, there formerly was an interesting group of effigy mounds about ten in number. These mounds were
situated immediately adjoining the site of a former hotel, and on that account are considerably tramped down and the outlines are not very distinct. “
“The west shore of the marsh, as well as the entire shore line, has furnished abundant vestiges of prehistoric occupancy.”

Wm. Keller Site
“In the northeast quarter of Sec. 30 on the border of the Sheboygan marsh and banks of the Sheboygan river, on the William Keller farm, are the remains of a cornfield or garden bed and
two effigy mounds. These mounds are the only remaining ones of what appears to have been a larger group formerly situated here. These mounds, representing quadrupeds, are not
very large and are situated on a gentle slope. Here and especially on the bottom land between this slope and river, many vestiges of prehistoric Indian occupation were developed. When
the writer visited this place be found within a short time a number of stone implements.”
“An interesting fact noted by him was that within a certain area on this site many finely shipped flint peforators had been found. These were in some of the small collections in this
neighborhood. Besides perforators, the writer gathered almost a basket full of flint blanks of an oval shape, possibly the remains of a cache. These blanks seem to be of very common
occurrence here as are also potsherds, these being, for the most part, of a thick character.
“Copper knives and awls, and flint arrow heads, stone axes are of comparatively common occurrence.”

“At the point where the Sheboygan river enters the township of Greenbush from Fond du Lac county a portion of marsh extends into the township of Marshfield, Fond du Lac county, on
both sides of the river.”
“On the Leon farm (S.E. ¼, Sec 36) just east of the public highway leading to St. Cloud, an interesting burial was discovered in a gravel pit. “
“Mr. Sam Wayner, formerly of St. Cloud, who was one of the men digging gravel from this hill at the time of the discovery, thus describes the burial:  'While digging they came upon some
narrow pieces of wood that were placed in an upright position some distance below the surface. Thesea are said to have pointed to a skeleton which was discovered about seven or
eight feet below the surface of the hill.' It was of large proportions (the writer has some of the bones). The skull was taken to Fond du Lac whre a jeweler by the name of Hesa is said to
have procured it.”
“This skeleton reposed in a horizontal position on its back. Mr. Wayner states that about 18 blue hornstone knives were found seemingly arrange in three packages and probably at one
time contained, or wrapped, in skin or hide. “
“One series, or package, of thse knives was found beneath the head, serving as a head rest, and one on either side of the chest. These 18 or more knives are all identical in material and
shape and nearly so in size. The writer procured one of them which is now in his collection.
“The Leon pit burial is but a sort distance from the St. Cloud group of mounds, garden beds and caches described and illustrated in 'The Wisconsin Archaeologist (Vol 14, No.1).
“Six of the seven mounds are at present of an oval shape. However, when seen at an earlier period before being dug into, they were of a distinct effigy, probably turtle shaped, similar to
the one effigy shown by Mr. Titus. An interesting observation made by the writer in the garden beds was that one furrow circled around the stump of what formerly was a big tree. As this is
covered by trees, which grew since this plot was used as a garden, it is evident that this large tree was already standing at that time and therefore, it was necessary for the furrow to pass
around it. This fact thus gives an indication of the time when this planting ground was in use.
“On both sides of the Sheboygan river, stone and copper objects have been found. It is reported that several copper fish hooks have been found here.
“North of the flag station of Hull's Crossing (Sec 27 and 28) thre is an extension of high land into the marsh. Here also is a large village site. The land comprises the Dan o'Brien, A.
Grimes, J.H. Rader and other farms. While visiting here, Mr. O'Brien referred to the writer to certain islands, or areas, of high land surrounded by lower levels which, when plowed, had
produced many fine implements. The writer obtained on this site some fine copper spears (cylindrical and lanceolate), several copper spuds and large awls. Stone spuds, axes, gorgets
and large spears were also found.”
“On the O'Brien farm, there was also found a large cache of stone objects. Near this place, a flat copper nugget was found which weighed, according to a statement made to the writer,
490 pounds.”
“Mound are said, to have been formerly located here, but were destroyed.”
“On the F. Froehlich farm, on a very high bank, there were found among other objects, two ornamented, or fluted, stone axes, one of which is in the writer's collection. These are exactly
similar in size and ornamentation.
“On the hillside of the J. Avery pond (N.E. ¼ of N.E ¼ , Sec 17) a burial place was discovered. This was explored by John Gerend, although it has been previously opened by a New York
party. “
“According to his observation, this grave was rectangular in shape and apparently lined with bark. It contained one skeleton and parts of others. The man from New York had removed
portions of one skeleton and other objects.
“At the time of white settlement an Indian camp was situated near a spring and swamp in the S.W. ¼ of Section 31. A cornfield formerly existed off the Val Engelman place in the S.W. ¼ of
the S.W. ¼ of Section 22. This information was furnished to the Wisconsin Archeological Socieity by Mr. Arthur Wenz, of Milwaukee. This town is rich in prehistoric relics.
“The most important highways of Sheboygan county closely follow the course of former Indian Trails. The Green Bay road, or old United States Military road, connecting Fort Howard with
Chicago, closely follows an old trail.”
“Andrew J. Vieau states that from the mouth of the Sheboygan to the (Manitowoc) Rapids, the lake shore trail ran sometimes on the beach and again on the high land for 15 or 16 miles.
“One or more trails led from Sheboygan to Sheboygan Falls where they divided. Here these trails were intersected by the trail following the course of the present Green Bay Road. Another
trail ran southwest to Cascade, Scott township and beyond. Another trail led west to the present, site of Fond du Lac, othes northwest to Rhine township to the forks of the Manitowoc and
Green Bay. The present Calumet plan road follows the course of an old trail to Chilton. In addition to these, there was a network of intersecting trails leading to every Indian haunt or
village, spring, trapping or fishing ground.”
“The most important highways of Sheboygan county closely follow the course of former Indian Trails. The Green Bay road, or old United States Military road, connecting Fort Howard with
Chicago, closely follows an old trail.”
“Andrew J. Vieau states that from the mouth of the Sheboygan to the (Manitowoc) Rapids, the lake shore trail ran sometimes on the beach and again on the high land for 15 or 16 miles.
“One or more trails led from Sheboygan to Sheboygan Falls where they divided. Here these trails were intersected by the trail following the course of the present Green Bay Road. Another
trail ran southwest to Cascade, Scott township and beyond. Another trail led west to the present, site of Fond du Lac, others northwest to Rhine township to the forks of the Manitowoc and
Green Bay. The present Calumet plan road follows the course of an old trail to Chilton. In addition to these, there was a network of intersecting trails leading to every Indian haunt or
village, spring, trapping or fishing ground.”

Summit, Wisconsin Mounds
Waukesha Freeman – Waukesha Wisconsin Thursday, May 31, 1906 - Excerpt From 'Things from long Ago'
Important groups on shores of Silver Lake

Vernon, Wisconsin  Mounds
Mt. Nebo, at Viola, in Vernon County,
is an Indian spirit  haunted hill. On its top were Indian mounds and graves. At  De Soto, on the bank of the Mississippi River, is Winneshick
Bluff, dedicated to the memory of the important Winnebago  chief of that name, a place his spirit is reputed to still visit.

Waukesha Wisconsin - Thursday, May 31, 1906 - Excerpt From 'Things from long Ago'
The Fox River country in this township is preeminently a mound region. Between Big Bend and the town line of Mukwonago are no less than a dozen distinct groups of conical, effigy and
other mounds, besides solitary ones.

Waterford, Wisconsin Mounds

Racine Journal Times- Racine Wisconsin - Tuesday, November 1, 1977  Page 5 - Excerpt from article
The Root River Valley in what is now the City of Racine contained a number of mounds of the Effigy Mound tradition as well as other evidence that may be associated with that aspect of
Woodland history. There were three effigy mound groups in the general area near the river bend that is now in Washing Park golf course. One group appears to have consisted of four
mounds, two of them effigies and one of the latter seem to have been the long mound in Racine County, with a straight “tail” 235 feet  tapering away from from a six foot high “head” . A
second (______) about 10 mounds contained three panther effigies  (____) of which was 130 feet in length and the shorts of the third group consisted of one pather and about seventeen
non-effigy mounds; the panther measured eighty feet in length. Dr. Hoy excavated this last group and found that the panther contained nothing, but the others held from one to seven
skeletons each.
Three Sites in the Fox River Valley can be associated with the Effigy Mound tradition. An effigy mound, the shape now unknown, once existed in the
Town of Waterford, half a mile north
of Tichigan Lake.
Also now of unknown shape was an effigy mound reported in 1928 on Hwy 83, south of Burlington. The third site contained one effigy mound in the shape of a turtle,
twenty feet long, fourteen feet wide and thirty inches high; George West discovered it near
Waubeesee Lake in the Town of Norway.

Waukesha, Wisconsin Mounds

Waukesha Freeman – Waukesha Wisconsin - Thursday, May 31, 1906 - Excerpt From 'Things from long Ago'
A Pottawatome village on the bluffs south of Carrol College. Chief Leathrstrap and his wives are said to have been buried within the preent limits of Cutler's Park.

Wind Lake, Wisconsin Mounds

Appleton Post-Crescent – Appleton, Wi - Old Indian Mounds Put to Queer Uses - Monday, November 14, 1927
The father of Col. Hans Heg, leader of Wisconsin troops in the Civil War, used a burial mound for temporary dwelling on his farm in Race County about 1842. He excavated a mound,
boarded up the sides, built a roof on top and thus constructed a comfortable one room house, which the family occupied for a year, according to Mr. Brown. Fourteen skeletons are
reported to have been removed from this mound.

Racine Journal Times, Racine Wisconsin - February 29, 1976 - Indian Burial Grounds traced at Wind Lake
Excerpt from the Milwaukee Journal
Map drawn by a George A. West for a 1903 article in the Wisconsin Archeologist magazine, showing the location of the mounds and an outline of what was thought to be an Indian village
site. It is really not known if any of the mounds still exist because of construction in the area.
In his article, West discovered five conical shaped mounds west of Loomis Road (old Hwy 36) and Wind Lake. These were probably destroyed by building in the area and by the
construction of new Hwy 36.
West wrote that even in 1903 most were obliterated by construction.
“Two were entirely removed either for the purpose of obtaining sand and gravel for the roads or for the use of a tile factory. Emil Petzold, owner of the land at that time, informed us that in
digging a cellar some 10 years ago, many human bones were thrown out,” West wrote in 1903.
Two more mounds were believed to be located in the same area west of Loomis Road.
West wrote that Col. Hans C Heg's father, Even Heg, owned the farm containing these mounds. Prior to 1844, one of these was excavated, the site boarded up and a roof put on, making
a one room house. It was said 14 skeletons were taken from this mound.It has also been written that a small store and trading post were constructed by excavating a portion of the
mound on the shore of Lake Waubeesee, Mrs. Palmer said. A magazine, published in 1868, said, “ there the two owners plied their trade undisturbed by the fact that dead men's bones
sometimes peaked between the cracks in the walls.” Another mound, according to West's map, was located near the outlet to Waubeesee Lake, then alled Minister Lake because the
minister of a church lived on its shores. This mound, according to West was opened in 1902. Inside were 21 skeletons, a few were those of children. No implements or ornaments were
found in the mounds, but an abundance of arrow
points and chips have been found in the vicinity,” West wrote. Another mound was located on the southwest side of Waubeesee Lake and was 14 feet across
and 3 ½ feet high and was not disturbed in 1903 when found by West. It is not known whether this mound still exists today.
South of where the present Norway Lutheran Church is located two other mounds were found.
They were reported, by West, to be 30 feet in diameter and three feet high. They had been plowed over but it is not believed the remains, if any were buried there, were disturbed, at least
by 1903. West wrote that an extensive village site was located along both sides of Muskego Creek, the outlet to Wind Lake.

Bird Man Mound in Sauk County
The Bird Man Mound at Devil's Lake in Wisconsin is not like the other
Thunderbird mounds found in that region. This mound, depicts a
man with wings- May be representative of a shaman who has his
powers in the sky spirit.
Wisconsin Man Mounds
These are not only found in Wisconsin but in Pennsylvania
Egyptian Depiction of the 'Horned Man'
Egptian God  Amun-Re
The Serpent God Amun
Regenerated himself by
becoming a snake and
shedding his skin.
However, when depicted
as a king, he wears the
crown of two plumes
, a
symbol borrowed from
Min, and often sits on a
throne. In this form, he is
one of nine deities who
compose the company
of gods of Amen-Ra. In
the Greek period (and
somewhat earlier, in
order to ascribe many
attributes to Amun-Re,
he was sometimes
depicted in bronze with
the bearded head of a
man, the body of a
beetle with the wings of
a hawk, the legs of a
man and the toes and
claws of a lion. He was
further provided with four
hands and arms and
four wings.
Wisconsin Mounds and Sacred Sites
Exploring the Unknown   with
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Flat Top Stepped Pyramid of Burlington, WI ...
Rediscovered by Mary Sutherland
Man Mound Park in Sauk County was dedicated in 1908. The effigy
mound depicts a 204-foot long human in the act of walking. Man Mound
was dedicated as a National Historic Landmark in 2016.
Horned Sun God - Greece 6 Century B.C.
Provided by Gustavo Travaglini
Louvre Museum
In my series 'In Search of Ancient Man' by Mary Sutherland, I write that the ancient people of Wisconsin
were the per-cursors to the Mayan and Aztec. I also show that they were Caucasian with no beard but a
mustache. This artifact from Mexico is a prime example as to what these 'Azteekas'  would have looked
like in ceremonial dress.  Provided by GustavoTravalini  - Maya Jaina, México
Panther Mounds Located in Wisconsin
Black Earth Bird Mound with House build
over part of it
This area we have yet to explore, but has been reported
to have been one of the Garden of Edens that were set
up around the world.
This was an amazing photo I got
from aerial shot . This mounds
with the head lies at the tail end of
the serpent mound of Burlington.
Note the small circular mounds
around it. Does it look like an alien
or does it look like a giant human
Burlington WI Mounds
Effigy Mounds Running
through Burlington WI,
along the Fox River,
then known as the
Pishtaka River, which is
Hindu word for Rice