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What the Mounds Tell Us

The Adena Berbers looked toward the sky for their gods and around their  mounds are found  "Sacred Circles" which  served as holy "meeting places"
for their people. The mounds served as maraboutic shrines in the time-honored Berber/Canaanite tradition. Explains Madison: " The  Adena society
was not an organized 'state,' but rather 'a state of nature mitigated by hereditary saints...anarchy mitigated by holiness!' The archaeologists have found
that the men buried in Adena mounds were those who 'established their utility to the community through ritual powers and mechanisms of economic
exchange (similar to the Berber marabout') Ref: The Berber Project

"Marabout" is a French term referencing "holy man". The  marabout is a holy man with a holy genealogy -- but the genealogy alone does not guarantee
his holiness. He can be "holy" if he has "baraka", (divine powers, "charisma" in the theological sense), has magical power, is good and pious,
generous, hospitable and peace-making. He accepts donations from those who seek his blessing. "The marabout is not a warrior, but he provides
political leadership in times of crisis or to resolve disputes between warring factions" (Ref: Ernest Gellner, Saints of the Atlas) This appears to be the
PRECISE ROLE of those buried in the Adena mounds.

In the Adena burial rites the bodies of the ruling class and other important people were usually sprinkled with RED OCHRE and laid to rest with a
variety of artifacts such as
flints, beads, pipes, and mica and copper ornaments. The red ochre aspect of the burials was a practice that extended back
for generations through the Old Copper Culture and all the way back to North Africa's Capsian period. Adena marabouts were also buried with varying
amounts of grave goods -- the amount indicating either the social inequities in their culture, or perhaps varying degrees of baraka. Tomb goods
included engraved stone tablets (often with predatory bird designs); polished gorgets (throat armor of stones and copper); pearl beads; ornaments of
sheet mica (also found in Maya graves); tubular stone pipes; and bone masks. Animal masks are common in late Adena sites. In addition to these
grave goods the Adena people made a wide range of stone, wood, bone and copper tools, as well as incised or stamped pottery and cloth woven from
vegetable fibers.

For their "common folk," the Adenas cremated the dead bodies and placed the remains in small log tombs on the surface of the ground. Virtually all of
these graves have been destroyed by nature and later settlement. Therefore, the more substantial mounds of the ruling class are our only physical
records of Adena burials.

The Hopewell Mound-builders

At the same time the Adena culture faded, the power in the Berber/Canaanite-settled Midwest began to shift to a new force -- a culture known to the
archaeologists as the "Hopewell." The base of the new culture was further west than the Adena, but clearly grew out of the Adena culture and absorbed
the descendants of the Red Ochre people who survived in Wisconsin, Illinois and Indiana. According to Professor Barry Fell, the Hopewell people
seem to have been "mainly Libyans" of Berber stock, with, he adds, some NEGROID admixture (America B.C., p. 189).

This new civilization was bolstered by a new influx of refugees from Spain when, in 201 B.C., the Carthaginians were driven out by the Romans. Those
who didn't cross the Atlantic fled back to Carthage for a safety that was short-lived. After Carthage lost the Punic Wars in 146 B.C., the Romans razed
the city sending a massive wave of refugees to the New World. Among the fleeing Carthaginians were elements of Negroid blood -- including some
remnants of the Anakim.

While the name "Hopewell" was imposed on this culture by the archaeologists, there is evidence that this people referred to themselves as Tallegwi.
The Native American Indians, Lenni Lenape and their Iroquois allies remembered encountering these people during their own eastward trek from
across the Mississippi River. The 18th century missionary (quoted earlier) wrote:

[The Lenape] discovered that the country east of the Mississippi was inhabited by a very powerful nation who had many large towns built on the great
rivers flowing through their land. Those people (as I was told) called themselves Talligew or Tallegwi...Many wonderful things are told of this famous
people. They are said to have been remarkably tall and stout, and there is a tradition that THERE WERE GIANTS  AMONG THEM, people of a much
larger size than the tallest of the Lenape. It is related that they had built fortifications or entrenchments.

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Brad and Mary Sutherland Researching Ancient Sites
The Mound Builders of Wisconsin
What do the Mounds Tell Us

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